COM 1100 Final Exam – Flashcards

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_______________________________ focuses on identifying your main points and developing your supporting points, plus considering useful ways to arrange those points and connect them in your speech.
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Organizing Your Speech Points
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_____________________ are the central claims that support your thesis statement; speeches generally have three or four of them, but may have more or less. β—‹ They should be arranged in such a way that your audience is drawn to the conclusion you wish them to make. β—‹ Each should include only one major idea to avoid overwhelming your audience.
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Main points
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________________ provide support for the main points and utilize your research. β—‹ Each main point should have the same number of ________________. β—‹ Each of these should carry the same weight and all should support the thesis statement and main purpose.
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Subpoints; subpoints
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β—‹ _______________________ patterns arrange main points in a systematic, time-related manner. β—‹ _________________ patterns arrange main points into categories, including ascending or descending order, or the primacy-recency effect. β—‹ ______________ patterns arrange main points in terms of physical proximity to or position in relation to each other. β—‹ _____________________ patterns present a problem and narrow solutions to the one you recommend.
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Chronological; Topical; Spatial; Problem-solution
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β—‹ _____________________ patterns arrange points in a cause-to-effect or effect-to-cause relationship. β—‹ ___________________ patterns present main points in a story pattern with characters, plot, settings, and imagery. β—‹ _____________________________ patterns, first developed by Alan Monroe, consist of the following five steps, which are based on the psychological elements of advertising: attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action.
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Cause-effect; Narrative; Motivated sequence
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β—‹ ____________________ connect points to one another seamlessly so they flow naturally from one to the next. β—‹ __________________ are key words or phrases, such as "next" or similarly," that signal transitions between points. β—‹ ______________________ let the audience know what's coming and work best with internal summaries, which allow the speaker to reiterate points.
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Transitions; Signposts; Internal previews
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β—‹ ___________________ means repeating key phrases or words to help your audience remember them. β—‹ _________________ indirectly reference someone or something else to give deeper meaning to the message. β—‹ _____________ use "like" or "as" to create comparisons between like things. β—‹__________________ compare unlike things and are stated as fact but are not to be taken literally.
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Repetition; Allusions; Similes; Metaphors
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β—‹ ____________________ outlines contain the full text of your speech. β—‹ _______________ outlines use phrases to serve as reminders for each point and subpoint. β—‹ __________________ outlines use key words to jog the speaker's memory about specifics for the speech β—‹ __________________ outlines (working outlines) firm up the content of your speech. β—‹ _______________ outlines (delivery outlines) contain delivery cues (brief reminders about important information related to the delivery of your speech) and notes about presentational aids. -should contain notes about citing your sources orally (oral citations). -should generally not be sentence outlines. It is better to switch to a phrase or key-word outline to maintain spontaneity in speaking.
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Sentence; Phrase; Key-word; Preparation; Speaking
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β—‹ ________________________ anxiety is the nervousness people feel when they have to communicate publicly to an audience and may include physical symptoms. β—‹ ______________________________ is a more general fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons.
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Public speaking; Communication apprehension
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β–ͺ Speaking from ______________________ β—‹ This kind of speaking has you read your speech word for word from a script; this is useful in situations where accuracy is critical. β—‹ This method is time consuming and can limit your ability to communicate nonverbally using movement, facial expressions, and gestures. β–ͺ Speaking from _________________ β—‹ Also referred to as oratory, this method requires you to commit your words to memory. β—‹ This method is both time consuming and risky. β—‹ Speaking from memory can seem like more of a performance than a communication situation in which the speaker is engaging with the audience.
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Manuscript; Memory
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β–ͺ Speaking _________________________ β—‹ Impromptu speaking is speaking to an audience without warning and preparation. β—‹ For impromptu speaking, you need to be able to think on your feet, choose a format for responding, and listen to what others have been saying about the subject. β–ͺ Speaking _____________________________ β—‹ This is speaking on planned content in a calm and collected manner. β—‹ Preparation tips include preparing well in advance, creating a key-word or phrase outline, and practicing.
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Spontaneously; Extemporaneously
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What are ways to have effective vocal delivery?
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-varying your pitch -adjusting your speaking rate -using changes in volume -using pauses for effect -Speaking clearly and precisely, using correct pronunciation and articulation, and avoiding mumbling
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What are ways to have effective visual delivery?
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-dressing for the occasion -using effective eye behavior -incorporating facial expressions -controlling your body movements
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What are ways to connect with your audience?
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β—‹ Express emotion about your topic to your audience β—‹ Adapt to the audience so you are speaking with them, not to them β—‹ Create immediacy with your audience by establishing and maintaining eye contact, smiling, moving toward your audience, and using inclusive gestures and posture; speaking in a relaxed, conversational tone or style; and using humor
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β–ͺ The Function of ________________________ is to supplement a speech, not substitute for it. They should accomplish the following: β—‹ Help listeners to retain and process information β—‹ Help promote listeners' interest and motivation about your topic β—‹ Convey information clearly and concisely, allowing more time for the speaker's interpretation and elaboration
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Presentation Aids
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β—‹ __________ (objects) and ________________ (scaled objects) help you describe things that may be difficult to describe with only words; however, they require preplanning to consider safety and logistics. β—‹ _________________ and ________________ provide illustrations to illustrate things that are difficult to describe with only words; however, they require equipment and infrastructure. β—‹ ________________ and _______________ assist you in delivering data to your audience β—‹ _______________ and _____________________ that are well done can help show complex information; they must be legible to the audience and they require equipment to display. β—‹ ___________________ and ____________________ invite audience participation but should not distract the audience. β—‹ __________________________, such as Microsoft PowerPoint, Apple Keynote, and Google Docs, can be helpful but, if done poorly, can overwhelm or dominate your presentation.
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Props; models Media clips; images Graphs; charts Posters; transparencies Flip charts; marker boards Presentation software
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Practicing Your Speech reviews four important points to consider when preparing to give your speech.
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1. remember your speaking outline 2. practice using presentation aids 3. simulate the situation 4. practice your delivery
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The Goals of __________________________ examines ways to increase an audience's understanding and knowledge throughout every phase of speech development and delivery. -increases the audience's understanding or knowledge about a topic. -intended to be objective, presenting facts and information in a straightforward and evenhanded way, free of influence from the speaker's personal thoughts or opinions. -This contrasts a subjective speech, which presents facts from a particular point of view.
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Informative Speaking
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β–ͺ Meeting the Audience's Informational Needs requires the following:
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β—‹ Gauging what the audience already knows so you don't repeat information they already know β—‹ Deciding on an appropriate approach to the topic in order to capture an audience's interest and teach them something β—‹ Making the topic relevant to each member of the audience by pointing out how the information will be useful in their lives
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β–ͺ ____________________ presentations paint a mental picture for your audience, allowing the speaker to portray places, events, persons, objects, or processes clearly and vividly. β–ͺ ___________________ speeches answer "how" questions by showing an audience the way something works, using a clear purpose statement and very straightforward organizational pattern. β–ͺ __________________ speeches answer "what" questions that incorporate the following: operational definitions, definition by negation, definition by example, definitions by synonym, or definitions by etymology (origin of a word or phrase). β–ͺ ____________________ speeches answer "why" or "what does that mean" questions. They can clarify concepts by elucidating explanations, quasi-scientific explanations, and transformative explanations.
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Descriptive; Demonstration; Definitional; Explanatory
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β–ͺ Persuasive speaking uses the process of persuasion to influence beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. It differs from coercion, which uses manipulation, threats, intimidation, or violence to gain compliance. β–ͺ __________________ are general evaluations of people, ideas, objects, or events. β–ͺ ______________ are ways in which people perceive reality. β–ͺ _________________ is the manner in which we act or function.
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Persuasive; Attitudes; Beliefs; Behavior
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β€’ Developing a Persuasive Topic and Thesis examines 3 types of propositions, or thesis statements that are often given about a viewpoint or position on an issue in a persuasive speech. β–ͺ ________________________ make a claim of what is or what is not and commonly involve issues that are open to some interpretation and on which there are conflicting evidence or beliefs, with the goal being to align the audience's perception or opinion of the fact with your own. β–ͺ ____________________________ make a claim about something's worth by seeking to convince an audience that something meets or does not meet a specific standard of goodness or quality or right or wrong. β–ͺ __________________________ make a claim about what a goal, policy, or course of action should be by persuading the audience that a current policy is not working or that a new policy is needed.
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Propositions of Fact; Propositions of Value; Propositions of Policy
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β—‹ _____________________________ argues that persuasion depends on the audience's current attitudes or disposition toward your topic. β—‹ A __________________ audience agrees with your viewpoints and your message and is likely to respond favorably to your speech. β—‹ A _______________ audience is one that opposes your message or you personally and is the hardest to persuade. β—‹ A ______________ audience falls between the other two, with its members neither supporting nor opposing you. Their neutrality may stem from disinterest or lack of information β—‹ How listeners react depends on their _____________________________β€”what is acceptable and unacceptable to them based on how they initially felt about the topic, or their anchor position.
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Social judgment theory; receptive; hostile; neutral; latitude of acceptance and rejection
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β—‹ Examine your audience through __________________________________, which argues that the most basic needs must be met before an individual can become concerned with needs farther up in the hierarchy. β—‹ These include the following needs: β–« Physiological/survival β–« Safety β–« Belongings/social β–« Esteem/ego-status β–« Self-actualization
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Maslow's hierarchy of needs
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β—‹ The ______________________________ (ELM) is based on the belief that listeners process persuasive messages by one of two routes, depending on how important or relevant the message is to them. β–« _______________ processing happens when people think critically about the speaker's message. β–« ___________________ processing happens when motivation is lacking.
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Elaboration Likelihood Model; Central; Peripheral
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β–ͺ __________________ β—‹ The effect of the speaker's credibility, character, and goodwill on a presentation. β—‹ Speakers also create this through homophily, that is, how much they perceive the audience to be "like them." β–ͺ ______________ refers to the persuasive appeals directed at the audience's reasoning on a topic. β—‹ Reasoning is the line of thought we use to make judgments based on facts and inferences from all around us. -__________________ reasoning occurs when you draw general conclusions based on specific evidence. -__________________ reasoning occurs when you begin with a general argument and apply it to specific cases. This is often done with a syllogism, a three-line deductive argument that draws a specific conclusion from two general premises. β–ͺ _________________ involves appealing to the listener's emotions. β—‹ Typically this is most effective when used with logos and ethos. β—‹ ________________________ are typically only effective if the speaker can get the audience to see the threat as serious, is likely to happen to them, and that there is a specific action they can take to avoid the threat.
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Ethos; Logos; Inductive; Deductive; Pathos; Fear appeals
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____________________________ are invalid or deceptive forms of reasoning. Examples include the following: β—‹ __________________ fallacy is accepting a statement as true because it is popular. It may persuade passive audience members who assume that an argument must be correct if others accept it. β—‹ _______________________ is pushing an argument beyond its logical limits. β—‹ ____________________ fallacy refers to relying on irrelevant information for an argument, thus diverting the direction of the argument. β—‹ ________________________ (ad hominem fallacy) are directed at the person, not the argument. β—‹ ____________________________ involves presenting arguments that no one can verify; also called a circular argument. β—‹ _______________ fallacy involves presenting only two options and failing to acknowledge alternatives; also called a false dilemma fallacy. β—‹ _______________________ uses tradition as proof in an argument. β—‹ ____________________ fallacy asserts one event occurs as a result of another without proof.
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Logical Fallacies; Bandwagon; Reduction to the absurd; Red herring; Personal attacks; Begging the question; Either-or; Appeal to tradition; Slippery slope
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β€’ Organizing Patterns in Persuasive Speaking β–ͺ _______________________________ β—‹ The speaker establishes the existence of a problem and then presents a solution. β—‹ This type of format works well when you are presenting a proposition of policy. β–ͺ ________________________________ β—‹ This pattern involves presenting main points opposed to your position and then following them with main points that support your position. β—‹ This format can help build credibility with a hostile audience. β–ͺ __________________________________ β—‹ This pattern shows that one viewpoint is superior to other viewpoints. β—‹ This pattern works well when listeners already agree there is a problem. β–ͺ _____________________________________ β—‹ This is a variant of the problem-solution pattern and includes five steps: attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action. β—‹ This is effective when you want your audience to take some kind of action.
answer
Problem-Solution Pattern; Refutational Organizational Pattern; Comparative Advantage Pattern; Monroe's Motivated Sequence
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question
_______________________________ focuses on identifying your main points and developing your supporting points, plus considering useful ways to arrange those points and connect them in your speech.
answer
Organizing Your Speech Points
question
_____________________ are the central claims that support your thesis statement; speeches generally have three or four of them, but may have more or less. β—‹ They should be arranged in such a way that your audience is drawn to the conclusion you wish them to make. β—‹ Each should include only one major idea to avoid overwhelming your audience.
answer
Main points
question
________________ provide support for the main points and utilize your research. β—‹ Each main point should have the same number of ________________. β—‹ Each of these should carry the same weight and all should support the thesis statement and main purpose.
answer
Subpoints; subpoints
question
β—‹ _______________________ patterns arrange main points in a systematic, time-related manner. β—‹ _________________ patterns arrange main points into categories, including ascending or descending order, or the primacy-recency effect. β—‹ ______________ patterns arrange main points in terms of physical proximity to or position in relation to each other. β—‹ _____________________ patterns present a problem and narrow solutions to the one you recommend.
answer
Chronological; Topical; Spatial; Problem-solution
question
β—‹ _____________________ patterns arrange points in a cause-to-effect or effect-to-cause relationship. β—‹ ___________________ patterns present main points in a story pattern with characters, plot, settings, and imagery. β—‹ _____________________________ patterns, first developed by Alan Monroe, consist of the following five steps, which are based on the psychological elements of advertising: attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action.
answer
Cause-effect; Narrative; Motivated sequence
question
β—‹ ____________________ connect points to one another seamlessly so they flow naturally from one to the next. β—‹ __________________ are key words or phrases, such as "next" or similarly," that signal transitions between points. β—‹ ______________________ let the audience know what's coming and work best with internal summaries, which allow the speaker to reiterate points.
answer
Transitions; Signposts; Internal previews
question
β—‹ ___________________ means repeating key phrases or words to help your audience remember them. β—‹ _________________ indirectly reference someone or something else to give deeper meaning to the message. β—‹ _____________ use "like" or "as" to create comparisons between like things. β—‹__________________ compare unlike things and are stated as fact but are not to be taken literally.
answer
Repetition; Allusions; Similes; Metaphors
question
β—‹ ____________________ outlines contain the full text of your speech. β—‹ _______________ outlines use phrases to serve as reminders for each point and subpoint. β—‹ __________________ outlines use key words to jog the speaker's memory about specifics for the speech β—‹ __________________ outlines (working outlines) firm up the content of your speech. β—‹ _______________ outlines (delivery outlines) contain delivery cues (brief reminders about important information related to the delivery of your speech) and notes about presentational aids. -should contain notes about citing your sources orally (oral citations). -should generally not be sentence outlines. It is better to switch to a phrase or key-word outline to maintain spontaneity in speaking.
answer
Sentence; Phrase; Key-word; Preparation; Speaking
question
β—‹ ________________________ anxiety is the nervousness people feel when they have to communicate publicly to an audience and may include physical symptoms. β—‹ ______________________________ is a more general fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons.
answer
Public speaking; Communication apprehension
question
β–ͺ Speaking from ______________________ β—‹ This kind of speaking has you read your speech word for word from a script; this is useful in situations where accuracy is critical. β—‹ This method is time consuming and can limit your ability to communicate nonverbally using movement, facial expressions, and gestures. β–ͺ Speaking from _________________ β—‹ Also referred to as oratory, this method requires you to commit your words to memory. β—‹ This method is both time consuming and risky. β—‹ Speaking from memory can seem like more of a performance than a communication situation in which the speaker is engaging with the audience.
answer
Manuscript; Memory
question
β–ͺ Speaking _________________________ β—‹ Impromptu speaking is speaking to an audience without warning and preparation. β—‹ For impromptu speaking, you need to be able to think on your feet, choose a format for responding, and listen to what others have been saying about the subject. β–ͺ Speaking _____________________________ β—‹ This is speaking on planned content in a calm and collected manner. β—‹ Preparation tips include preparing well in advance, creating a key-word or phrase outline, and practicing.
answer
Spontaneously; Extemporaneously
question
What are ways to have effective vocal delivery?
answer
-varying your pitch -adjusting your speaking rate -using changes in volume -using pauses for effect -Speaking clearly and precisely, using correct pronunciation and articulation, and avoiding mumbling
question
What are ways to have effective visual delivery?
answer
-dressing for the occasion -using effective eye behavior -incorporating facial expressions -controlling your body movements
question
What are ways to connect with your audience?
answer
β—‹ Express emotion about your topic to your audience β—‹ Adapt to the audience so you are speaking with them, not to them β—‹ Create immediacy with your audience by establishing and maintaining eye contact, smiling, moving toward your audience, and using inclusive gestures and posture; speaking in a relaxed, conversational tone or style; and using humor
question
β–ͺ The Function of ________________________ is to supplement a speech, not substitute for it. They should accomplish the following: β—‹ Help listeners to retain and process information β—‹ Help promote listeners' interest and motivation about your topic β—‹ Convey information clearly and concisely, allowing more time for the speaker's interpretation and elaboration
answer
Presentation Aids
question
β—‹ __________ (objects) and ________________ (scaled objects) help you describe things that may be difficult to describe with only words; however, they require preplanning to consider safety and logistics. β—‹ _________________ and ________________ provide illustrations to illustrate things that are difficult to describe with only words; however, they require equipment and infrastructure. β—‹ ________________ and _______________ assist you in delivering data to your audience β—‹ _______________ and _____________________ that are well done can help show complex information; they must be legible to the audience and they require equipment to display. β—‹ ___________________ and ____________________ invite audience participation but should not distract the audience. β—‹ __________________________, such as Microsoft PowerPoint, Apple Keynote, and Google Docs, can be helpful but, if done poorly, can overwhelm or dominate your presentation.
answer
Props; models Media clips; images Graphs; charts Posters; transparencies Flip charts; marker boards Presentation software
question
Practicing Your Speech reviews four important points to consider when preparing to give your speech.
answer
1. remember your speaking outline 2. practice using presentation aids 3. simulate the situation 4. practice your delivery
question
The Goals of __________________________ examines ways to increase an audience's understanding and knowledge throughout every phase of speech development and delivery. -increases the audience's understanding or knowledge about a topic. -intended to be objective, presenting facts and information in a straightforward and evenhanded way, free of influence from the speaker's personal thoughts or opinions. -This contrasts a subjective speech, which presents facts from a particular point of view.
answer
Informative Speaking
question
β–ͺ Meeting the Audience's Informational Needs requires the following:
answer
β—‹ Gauging what the audience already knows so you don't repeat information they already know β—‹ Deciding on an appropriate approach to the topic in order to capture an audience's interest and teach them something β—‹ Making the topic relevant to each member of the audience by pointing out how the information will be useful in their lives
question
β–ͺ ____________________ presentations paint a mental picture for your audience, allowing the speaker to portray places, events, persons, objects, or processes clearly and vividly. β–ͺ ___________________ speeches answer "how" questions by showing an audience the way something works, using a clear purpose statement and very straightforward organizational pattern. β–ͺ __________________ speeches answer "what" questions that incorporate the following: operational definitions, definition by negation, definition by example, definitions by synonym, or definitions by etymology (origin of a word or phrase). β–ͺ ____________________ speeches answer "why" or "what does that mean" questions. They can clarify concepts by elucidating explanations, quasi-scientific explanations, and transformative explanations.
answer
Descriptive; Demonstration; Definitional; Explanatory
question
β–ͺ Persuasive speaking uses the process of persuasion to influence beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. It differs from coercion, which uses manipulation, threats, intimidation, or violence to gain compliance. β–ͺ __________________ are general evaluations of people, ideas, objects, or events. β–ͺ ______________ are ways in which people perceive reality. β–ͺ _________________ is the manner in which we act or function.
answer
Persuasive; Attitudes; Beliefs; Behavior
question
β€’ Developing a Persuasive Topic and Thesis examines 3 types of propositions, or thesis statements that are often given about a viewpoint or position on an issue in a persuasive speech. β–ͺ ________________________ make a claim of what is or what is not and commonly involve issues that are open to some interpretation and on which there are conflicting evidence or beliefs, with the goal being to align the audience's perception or opinion of the fact with your own. β–ͺ ____________________________ make a claim about something's worth by seeking to convince an audience that something meets or does not meet a specific standard of goodness or quality or right or wrong. β–ͺ __________________________ make a claim about what a goal, policy, or course of action should be by persuading the audience that a current policy is not working or that a new policy is needed.
answer
Propositions of Fact; Propositions of Value; Propositions of Policy
question
β—‹ _____________________________ argues that persuasion depends on the audience's current attitudes or disposition toward your topic. β—‹ A __________________ audience agrees with your viewpoints and your message and is likely to respond favorably to your speech. β—‹ A _______________ audience is one that opposes your message or you personally and is the hardest to persuade. β—‹ A ______________ audience falls between the other two, with its members neither supporting nor opposing you. Their neutrality may stem from disinterest or lack of information β—‹ How listeners react depends on their _____________________________β€”what is acceptable and unacceptable to them based on how they initially felt about the topic, or their anchor position.
answer
Social judgment theory; receptive; hostile; neutral; latitude of acceptance and rejection
question
β—‹ Examine your audience through __________________________________, which argues that the most basic needs must be met before an individual can become concerned with needs farther up in the hierarchy. β—‹ These include the following needs: β–« Physiological/survival β–« Safety β–« Belongings/social β–« Esteem/ego-status β–« Self-actualization
answer
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
question
β—‹ The ______________________________ (ELM) is based on the belief that listeners process persuasive messages by one of two routes, depending on how important or relevant the message is to them. β–« _______________ processing happens when people think critically about the speaker's message. β–« ___________________ processing happens when motivation is lacking.
answer
Elaboration Likelihood Model; Central; Peripheral
question
β–ͺ __________________ β—‹ The effect of the speaker's credibility, character, and goodwill on a presentation. β—‹ Speakers also create this through homophily, that is, how much they perceive the audience to be "like them." β–ͺ ______________ refers to the persuasive appeals directed at the audience's reasoning on a topic. β—‹ Reasoning is the line of thought we use to make judgments based on facts and inferences from all around us. -__________________ reasoning occurs when you draw general conclusions based on specific evidence. -__________________ reasoning occurs when you begin with a general argument and apply it to specific cases. This is often done with a syllogism, a three-line deductive argument that draws a specific conclusion from two general premises. β–ͺ _________________ involves appealing to the listener's emotions. β—‹ Typically this is most effective when used with logos and ethos. β—‹ ________________________ are typically only effective if the speaker can get the audience to see the threat as serious, is likely to happen to them, and that there is a specific action they can take to avoid the threat.
answer
Ethos; Logos; Inductive; Deductive; Pathos; Fear appeals
question
____________________________ are invalid or deceptive forms of reasoning. Examples include the following: β—‹ __________________ fallacy is accepting a statement as true because it is popular. It may persuade passive audience members who assume that an argument must be correct if others accept it. β—‹ _______________________ is pushing an argument beyond its logical limits. β—‹ ____________________ fallacy refers to relying on irrelevant information for an argument, thus diverting the direction of the argument. β—‹ ________________________ (ad hominem fallacy) are directed at the person, not the argument. β—‹ ____________________________ involves presenting arguments that no one can verify; also called a circular argument. β—‹ _______________ fallacy involves presenting only two options and failing to acknowledge alternatives; also called a false dilemma fallacy. β—‹ _______________________ uses tradition as proof in an argument. β—‹ ____________________ fallacy asserts one event occurs as a result of another without proof.
answer
Logical Fallacies; Bandwagon; Reduction to the absurd; Red herring; Personal attacks; Begging the question; Either-or; Appeal to tradition; Slippery slope
question
β€’ Organizing Patterns in Persuasive Speaking β–ͺ _______________________________ β—‹ The speaker establishes the existence of a problem and then presents a solution. β—‹ This type of format works well when you are presenting a proposition of policy. β–ͺ ________________________________ β—‹ This pattern involves presenting main points opposed to your position and then following them with main points that support your position. β—‹ This format can help build credibility with a hostile audience. β–ͺ __________________________________ β—‹ This pattern shows that one viewpoint is superior to other viewpoints. β—‹ This pattern works well when listeners already agree there is a problem. β–ͺ _____________________________________ β—‹ This is a variant of the problem-solution pattern and includes five steps: attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action. β—‹ This is effective when you want your audience to take some kind of action.
answer
Problem-Solution Pattern; Refutational Organizational Pattern; Comparative Advantage Pattern; Monroe's Motivated Sequence