Cognitive Psychology EXAM 2 Chap 5,6,7

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articulatory rehearsal process
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Rehearsal process involved in working memory that keeps items in the phonological store from decaying.
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articulatory suppression
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Interference with operation of the phonological loop that occurs when a person repeats an irrelevant word such as \”the\” while carrying out a task that requires the phonological loop.
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auditory coding
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Representation of the sound of a stimulus in the mind.
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central executive
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The part of working memory that coordinates the activity of the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketch pad.
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chunk
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Used in connection with the idea of chunking in memory. A chunk is a collection of elements that are strongly associated with each other, but are weakly associated with elements in other chunks. …
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chunking
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…Combining small units into larger ones, such as when individual words are combined into a meaningful sentence. Chunking can be used to increase the capacity of memory.
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coding
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…The form in which stimuli are represented in the mind. For example, information can be represented in visual, semantic, and phonological forms. See also Neural code, which refers to how stimuli are represented in the firing of neurons.
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control processes
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…In Atkinson and Shiffrin’s modal model of memory, active processes that can be controlled by the person and may differ from one task to another. Rehearsal is an example of a control process.
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decay
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…Process by which information is lost from memory due to the passage of time.
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delayed partial report method
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…Procedure used in Sperling’s experiment on the properties of the visual icon, in which participants were instructed to report only some of the stimuli in a briefly presented display. A cue tone that was delayed for a fraction of a second after the display was extinguished indicated which part of the display to report. See also Partial report method; Whole report method.
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delayed-response task
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…A task in which information is provided, a delay is imposed, and then memory is tested. This task has been used to study short-term memory by testing monkeys’ ability to hold information about the location of a food reward during a delay.
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digit span
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…The number of digits a person can remember. Digit span is used as a measure of the capacity of short-term memory.
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echoic memory
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…Brief sensory memory for auditory stimuli that lasts for a few seconds after a stimulus is extinguished.
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endcoding
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…The process of acquiring information and transferring it into memory.
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episodic buffer
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…A component added to Baddeley’s original working memory model that serves as a \”backup\” store that communicates with both LTM and the components of working memory. It holds information longer and has greater capacity than the phonological loop or visuospatial sketch pad.
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iconic memory
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…Brief sensory memory for visual stimuli that lasts for a fraction of a second after a stimulus is extinguished. This corresponds to the sensory memory stage of the modal model of memory.
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memory
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…The processes involved in retaining, retrieving, and using information about stimuli, images, events, ideas, and skills, after the original information is no longer present.
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mental approach to coding
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…Determining how a stimulus or experience is represented in the mind.
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mental rotation
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…, Rotating an image of an object in the mind. Shepard and Metzler’s experiment provided evidence that people use this method when asked to determine whether two depictions are of the same object viewed from different angles or are two different objects.
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modal model of memory
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…The model proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin that describes memory as a mechanism that involves processing information through a series of stages, including short-term memory and long-term memory. It is called the modal model because of the great influence it has had on memory research.
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partial report method
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…Procedure used in Sperling’s experiment on the properties of the visual icon, in which participants were instructed to report only some of the stimuli in a briefly presented display. A cue tone immediately after the display was extinguished indicated which part of the display to report. See also Delayed partial report method; Sensory memory; Whole report method.
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perseveration
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…Difficulty in switching from one behavior to another, which can hinder a person’s ability to solve problems that require flexible thinking. Perseveration is observed in cases in which the prefrontal cortex has been damaged.
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persistence of vision
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…The continued perception of light for a fraction of a second after the original light stimulus has been extinguished. Perceiving a trail of light from a moving sparkler is caused by the persistence of vision. See also Iconic memory.
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phonological loop
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…The part of working memory that holds and processes verbal and auditory information. See also Central executive; Visuospatial sketch pad; Working memory.
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pholological similarity effect
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…An effect that occurs when letters or words that sound similar are confused. For example, T and P are two similar-sounding letters that could be confused.
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phonological store
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…Component of the phonological loop of working memory that holds a limited amount of verbal and auditory information for a few seconds.
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physiological approach to coding
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…Determining how a stimulus or experience is represented by the firing of neurons.
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proactive interference
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…When information learned previously interferes with learning new information. See also Retroactive interference.
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reading span
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…The maximum number of sentences that a person can read while simultaneously holding the last word of each sentence in memory. Reading span has been used to measure both the storage and processing functions of working memory.
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recall test
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…A test in which participants are presented with stimuli and then, after a delay, are asked to remember as many of the stimuli as possible. See also Cued recall; Free recall.
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rehearsal
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…The process of repeating a stimulus over and over, usually for the purpose of remembering it, that keeps the stimulus active in short-term memory.
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release from practive interferecne
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…A situation in which conditions occur that eliminate or reduce the decrease in performance caused by proactive interference. See Wickens’ experiment described in Chapter 5.
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retrieval
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…The process of remembering information that has been stored in long-term memory.
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semantic coding
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…Coding in the mind in the form of meaning. An example of semantic coding would be remembering the meaning of something you have read, as opposed to what the letters or words looked like (visual coding) or sounded like (auditory coding).
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sensory memory
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…A brief stage of memory that holds information for seconds or fractions of a second. It is the first stage in the modal model of memory. See also Iconic memory; Persistence of vision.
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short-term memory
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…A memory mechanism that can hold a limited amount of information for a brief period of time, usually around 30 seconds, unless there is rehearsal (such as repeating a telephone number) that can maintain information in long-term memory. Short-term memory is one of the stages in the modal model of memory.
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structural features (modal model)
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…Stages in the modal model of memory. These stages are sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
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visual coding
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…Coding in the mind in the form of a visual image. An example of visual coding would be remembering something by conjuring up an image of it in your mind. Also see Semantic coding.
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visual icon
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…Brief sensory memory for visual stimuli that lasts for a fraction of a second after a stimulus is extinguished. This corresponds to the sensory memory stage of the modal model of memory.
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visual imagery
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…A type of mental imagery involving vision, in which an image is experienced in the absence of a visual stimulus.
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visuospatioal sketch pad
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…The part of working memory that holds and processes visual and spatial information. See also Central executive; Phonological loop; Working memory.
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whole report method
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…Procedure used in Sperling’s experiment on the properties of the visual icon, in which participants were instructed to report all of the stimuli they saw in a brief presentation. See also Partial report method; Sensory memory.
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word length effect
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…The notion that it is more difficult to remember a list of long words than a list of short words.
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working memory
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…A limited-capacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex tasks such as comprehension, learning, and reasoning.
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When a sparkler is twirled rapidly, people perceive a circle of light. This occurs because:
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the length of iconic memory (the persistence of vision) is about one-third of a second.
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The \”magic number,\” according to Miller, is:
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7 plus or minus 2.
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The conclusion from the experiment in which a chess master and a chess novice were asked to remember the positions of chess pieces on a chess board was that:
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chess masters use chunking to help them remember actual game arrangements.
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Funahashi et al.’s work on monkeys doing a delayed response task is an example of the:
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physiological approach to coding.
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Recalling the sound of a song you heard on the radio yesterday would be an example of:
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auditory coding in LTM.
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Wickens et al.’s \”fruit, meat, and professions\” experiment failed to show a release from proactive interference in the \”fruit\” group because:
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the stimulus category remained the same.
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Working memory differs from short-term memory in that:
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working memory is concerned with the manipulation of information.
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The word-length effect shows that it is more difficult to remember:
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a list of long words than a list of short words.
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Which task should be easier: keeping a sentence like \”John went to the store to buy some oranges\” in your mind AND:
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pointing to the word \”yes\” for each word that is a noun and \”no\” for each word that is not a noun?
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Shanta has frontal lobe damage. She is doing a problem solving task in which she has to choose the red object out of many choices. She can easily complete this repeatedly, but when the experimenter asks her to choose the blue object on a new trial of the task, she continues to choose the red one, even when the experimenter gives her feedback that she is incorrect. Shanta is displaying:
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perseveration
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Anterograde amnesia
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Amnesia for events that occur after an injury—that is, the inability to form new memories. Compare to retrograde amnesia—the inability to remember information from the past.
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Classical conditioning
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A procedure in which pairing a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that elicits a response causes the neutral stimulus to elicit that response.
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Conceptual priming
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Priming that occurs when the enhancement caused by a priming stimulus is based on the meaning of the stimulus. For example, presentation of the word furniture causing a faster response to later presentation of the word chair.
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Declarative memory
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Memory that involves conscious recollections of events or facts that we have learned in the past.
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Episodic memory
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Memory for specific events that have happened to the person having the memory. These events are usually remembered as a personal experience that occurred at a particular time and place. Episodic and semantic memory together make up declarative memory.
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Explicit memory
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Memory that involves conscious recollections of events or facts that we have learned in the past. Also called declarative memory or conscious memory.
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Implicit memory
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Memory that occurs when an experience affects a person’s behavior, even though the person is not aware that he or she has had the experience. Also called nondeclarative memory.
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Korsakoff’s syndrome
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A condition caused by prolonged vitamin B1 deficiency that leads to destruction of areas on the frontal and temporal lobes that causes severe impairments in memory.
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Long-term memory (LTM)
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A memory mechanism that can hold large amounts of information for long periods of time. Long-term memory is one of the stages in the modal model of memory.
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Mental time travel
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According to Tulving, the defining property of the experience of episodic memory, in which a person travels back in time in his or her mind to reexperience events that happened in the past. See also Self-knowing.
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Nondeclarative memory
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Memory that occurs when an experience affects a person’s behavior, even though the person is not aware that he or she has had the experience.
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Primacy effect
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In a memory experiment in which a list of words is presented, enhanced memory for words presented at the beginning of the list. See also Recency effect.
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Priming
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A change in response to a stimulus caused by the previous presentation of the same or a similar stimulus.
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Procedural memory
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Memory for how to carry out highly practiced skills. Procedural memory is a type of implicit memory because although people can carry out a skilled behavior, they often cannot explain exactly how they are able to do so.
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Propaganda effect
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People are more likely to rate statements they have read or heard before as being true, just because of prior exposure to the statements.
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Recency effect
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In a memory experiment in which a list of words is presented, enhanced memory for words presented at the end of the list. See also Primacy effect.
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Recognition memory
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Identifying a stimulus that was encountered earlier. Stimuli are presented during a study period and then, later, the same stimuli plus other, new stimuli are presented. The participants’ task is to pick the stimuli that were originally presented.
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Repetition priming
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When an initial presentation of a stimulus affects the person’s response to the same stimulus when it is presented later.
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Retrograde amnesia
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Loss of memory for something that happened prior to an injury or traumatic event such as a concussion. See also Anterograde amnesia.
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Semantic memory
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Memory for knowledge about the world that is not tied to any specific personal experience. Semantic and episodic memory together make up declarative memory.
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Serial position curve
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In a memory experiment in which participants are asked to recall a list of words, a plot of the percentage of participants remembering each word against the position of that word in the list. See also Primacy effect; Recency effect.
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The inability to assimilate or retain new knowledge is known as:
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anterograde amnesia.
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The primacy effect (from the serial position curve experiment) is associated with:
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LTM.
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An example of a dissociation is evidenced by a brain-injured patient who:
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exhibits a recency effect but no primacy effect.
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Which of the following is NOT an example of an implicit memory?
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Semantic memory
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The following statement represents what kind of memory? \”The Beatles stopped making music together as a group in the early 1970s.\”
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Semantic
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Phoebe steps up to the golf ball and hits it down the fairway. She sees that the ball is heading towards someone, so she yells \”Fore!\” After her two partners hit their balls, they pick up their bags and start walking to the next hole. But Phoebe says, \”Wait a minute, I haven’t teed off yet.\” This behavior shows that Phoebe has a problem with ________ memory.
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episodic
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The defining characteristic of implicit memory is that:
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we are not conscious we are using it.
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Which task below would most likely be used to test for implicit memory?
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Completing a word for which the first and last letter have been supplied.
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Why is classical conditioning considered a form of implicit memory?
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Because it involves learning an association without being aware of the reasons behind it.
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According to your text, which of the following movies is LEAST accurate in its portrayal of a memory problem?
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50 First Dates
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Consolidation
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The process that transforms new memories into a state in which they are more resistant to disruption. See also Standard model of consolidation.
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Cued recall
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A procedure for testing memory in which a participant is presented with cues, such as words or phrases, to aid recall of previously experienced stimuli. See also Free recall.
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Deep processing
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Processing that involves attention to meaning and relating an item to something else. Deep processing is usually associated with elaborative rehearsal. See also Depth of processing; Shallow processing.
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Depth of processing
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The idea that the processing that occurs as an item is being encoded into memory can be deep or shallow. Deep processing involves attention to meaning and is associated with elaborative rehearsal. Shallow processing involves repetition with little attention to meaning and is associated with maintenance rehearsal. See also Levels of processing.
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Elaborative rehearsal
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Rehearsal that involves thinking about the meaning of an item to be remembered or making connections between that item and prior knowledge. Compare to Maintenance rehearsal.
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Encoding
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The process of acquiring information and transferring it into memory.
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Encoding specificity
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The principle that we learn information together with its context. This means that presence of the context can lead to enhanced memory for the information.
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Free recall
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A procedure for testing memory in which the participant is asked to remember stimuli that were previously presented. See also Cued recall.
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Generation effect
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Memory for material is better when a person generates the material him- or herself, rather than passively receiving it.
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Graded amnesia
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When amnesia is most severe for events that occurred just prior to an injury and becomes less severe for earlier, more remote events.
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Levels of processing (LOP)
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Part of levels-of-processing theory that states that there are different depths of processing that can be achieved as information is being encoded. See also Depth of processing; Levels-of-processing theory.
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Levels-of-processing theory
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The idea that memory depends on how information is encoded, with better memory being achieved when processing is deep than when processing is shallow. Deep processing involves attention to meaning and is associated with elaborative rehearsal. Shallow processing involves repetition with little attention to meaning and is associated with maintenance rehearsal.
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Long-term potentiation (LTP)
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The increased firing that occurs in a neuron due to prior activity at the synapse.
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Maintenance rehearsal
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Rehearsal that involves repetition without any consideration of meaning or making connections to other information. Compare to Elaborative rehearsal.
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Medial temporal lobe (MTL)
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An area in the temporal lobe that consists of the hippocampus and a number of surrounding structures. Damage to the MTL causes problems in forming new long-term memories.
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Multiple trace hypothesis
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The idea, associated with memory consolidation, that the hippocampus is involved in retrieval of remote memories, especially episodic memories. This contrasts with the standard model of memory, which proposes that the hippocampus is involved only in the retrieval of recent memories.
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Paired-associate learning
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A learning task in which participants are first presented with pairs of words, then one word of each pair is presented and the task is to recall the other word.
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Reactivation
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A process that occurs during memory consolidation, in which the hippocampus replays the neural activity associated with a memory. During reactivation, activity occurs in the network connecting the hippocampus and the cortex. This activity results in the formation of connections between the cortical areas.
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Reconsolidation
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A process proposed by Nader and others that occurs when a memory is reactivated. This process is similar to the consolidation that occurs after initial learning, although it apparently occurs more rapidly.
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Rehearsal
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The process of repeating a stimulus over and over, usually for the purpose of remembering it, that keeps the stimulus active in short-term memory.
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Remote memory
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Memory for events that occurred long ago.
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Retrieval
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The process of remembering information that has been stored in long-term memory.
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Retrieval cues
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Cues that help a person remember information that is stored in memory.
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Self-reference effect
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Memory for a word is improved by relating the word to the self.
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Shallow processing
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Processing that involves repetition with little attention to meaning. Shallow processing is usually associated with maintenance rehearsal. See also Deep processing; Depth of processing.
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Spacing effect
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The advantage in performance caused by short study sessions separated by breaks from studying.
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Standard model of consolidation
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Proposes that memory retrieval depends on the hippocampus during consolidation, but that once consolidation is complete, retrieval no longer depends on the hippocampus.
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State-dependent learning
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The principle that memory is best when a person is in the same state for encoding and retrieval. This principle is related to encoding specificity.
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Synaptic consolidation
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A process of consolidation that involves structural changes at synapses that happen rapidly, over a period of minutes. See also Consolidation; Systems consolidation.
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Systems consolidation
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A consolidation process that involves the gradual reorganization of circuits within brain regions and takes place on a long time scale, lasting weeks, months, or even years. See also Consolidation; Synaptic consolidation.
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Testing effect
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Enhanced performance on a memory test caused by being tested on the material to be remembered.
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Transfer-appropriate processing
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When the type of task that occurs during encoding matches the type of task that occurs during retrieval. This type of processing can result in enhanced memory.
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Elaborative rehearsal of a word will LEAST likely be accomplished by:
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repeating it over and over.
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According to the levels of processing theory, memory durability depends on how information is:
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encoded.
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The elaborative rehearsal task of learning a word by using it in a sentence is generally most effective if the generated sentence is:
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complex
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Free recall of the stimulus list \”apple, desk, shoe, sofa, plum, chair, cherry, coat, lamp, pants\” will most likely yield which of these response patterns?
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\”Apple, cherry, plum, shoe, coat, lamp, chair, pants\”
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The story in the text about the balloons that were used to suspend a speaker in mid air was used to illustrate the role of ________ in memory.
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organization
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Which example below best demonstrates state-dependent learning?
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Although Emily doesn’t very often think about her first love, Steve, she can’t help getting caught up in happy memories when \”their song\” (the first song they danced to) plays on the radio.
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According to memory research, studying is most effective if study sessions are:
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short and across several days.
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Donald Hebb proposed that memory is represented in the brain by structural changes in all of the following EXCEPT the:
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neurotransmitters
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Your book explains that brief episodes of retrograde amnesia (e.g., the traumatic disruption of newly formed memories when a football player takes a hit to the head and can’t recall the last play before the hit) reflect:
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a failure of memory consolidation.
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Treatment of PTSD has benefitted from recent research on:
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reconsolidation

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