CO 502 Final Exam MC Questions & Answers

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The founder of rational emotive behavior therapy is:
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Albert Ellis.
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Rational emotive behavior therapy belongs to which category of therapy?
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cognitive-behavior/action oriented
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The cognitive-behavioral approach to therapy stresses:
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thinking, judging, analyzing, and doing.
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The correct components of the A-B-C theory of personality are:
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activating event, belief, consequence.
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REBT views emotional disturbances as the result of:
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irrational thinking and behaving.
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According to REBT, what is the core of most emotional disturbance?
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blame
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REBT contends that people:
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do not need to be accepted and loved.
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Which of the following statements does not reflect one of Ellis’s three basic musts?
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“I must be kind to others or else I won’t be a good person.”
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REBT employs what kind of method to help people resolve their emotional and behavioral problems?
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the empirical method
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The main therapeutic goal of REBT is:
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none of these (a. to teach clients how to recognize which ego state they are in. b. to make the unconscious conscious. c. to assist the client in becoming aware of his or her “being-in-the-world.” d. to challenge the client in making both a value judgment and moral decision about the quality of his or her behavior.)
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The main function of the rational emotive behavior therapist is to:
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challenge clients to reevaluate their ideas and philosophy of life.
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REBT can best be considered as:
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all of these (a.an educative process. b. a didactic process. c. a process challenging ideas and thinking. d. a teaching/learning process)
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Who developed a cognitive behavioral program for diet and maintenance and has written trade books about this topic?
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Judith Beck
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The role of the client in rational emotive behavior therapy is like that of a:
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student or learner.
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Which method is not employed in REBT?
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free association
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Which theorist is known for his or her abrasive, humorous, and flamboyant style?
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Albert Ellis
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Cognitive restructuring plays an important role in whose approach to therapy?
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Judith Beck
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A feature of REBT that distinguishes it from other cognitive-behavioral therapies is:
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its systematic exposition of irrational beliefs that result in emotional and behavioral disturbance.
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Beck’s cognitive therapy involves all of the options below except:
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conducting a lifestyle assessment.
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Sonia, a recovering alcoholic, is going through relapse prevention. During this process, it is likely that she will:
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be taught to view any lapses that occur as “learning opportunities” rather than “catastrophic failures.”
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Which of the following is the correct order of the three phases of Meichenbaum’s stress-inoculation program?
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conceptual-rehearsal-application
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According to Ellis, we develop emotional and behavioral difficulties because:
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we think of simple preferences as dire needs.
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An REBT therapist would contend that anxiety stems from:
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the internal repetition of irrational sentences.
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In REBT, what method is taught to clients to help them challenge irrational beliefs?
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disputational method
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Which of the following is true about the relationship between a client and a rational emotive behavior therapist?
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It is characterized by full acceptance and tolerance.
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Which of the following REBT techniques helps a client gradually learn to deal with anxiety and challenge basic irrational thinking?
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cognitive homework
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According to REBT, it is important to change the way one uses language because:
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all of these (a. imprecise language is one of the causes of distorted thinking processes. b. language shapes thinking and behavior. c. language shapes feelings.)
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The REBT technique that involves having clients imagine themselves in situations where they feel inappropriate feelings is called:
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rational-emotive imagery.
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Which of the following is not true about role playing in REBT?
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It is a way of surfacing unfinished business.
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Which REBT technique involves having the client do the very thing they avoid because of “what people might think?”
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shame-attacking exercises
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All of the following are true as they apply to self-instructional therapy, except that:
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it is an outgrowth of an approach used widely by crisis intervention workers called self-induced change therapy.
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Which of the following is not part of the five-step treatment procedure used in a coping-skills program?
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evaluating the anxiety level of the client by using both physiological and psychological tests
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All of the following are cognitive methods of REBT except for:
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shame-attacking exercises.
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Which of the following is not true of Beck’s cognitive therapy?
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It asserts that irrational beliefs lead to emotional problems.
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One of the main ways that Beck’s cognitive therapy differs from Ellis’s REBT is that in Beck’s approach, more so than in Ellis’s approach:
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the quality of the therapeutic relationship is basic to the therapy process.
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In Meichenbaum’s cognitive behavior modification, what is given primary importance?
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inner speech
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Stress inoculation training consists of all of the following except:
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tapping into the unconscious realm.
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One strength of cognitive behavioral therapy group counseling is that:
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emphasis is placed on symptom prevention.
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In cognitive therapy, techniques are designed to:
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assist individuals in making alternative interpretations of events in their daily living.
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The type of cognitive error that involves thinking and interpreting in all-or-nothing terms, or in categorizing experiences in either/or extremes, is known as:
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polarized thinking.
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Beck’s cognitive therapy differs from Ellis’s REBT in that Beck’s approach emphasizes:
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all of these (a. more of a Socratic dialogue. b. helping clients to discover their misconceptions by themselves. c. working with the client in collaborative ways. d. more structure in the therapy process.)
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Beck’s cognitive therapy has been most widely applied to the treatment of:
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depression.
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Which stage is not included in Meichenbaum’s model for stress inoculation training?
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the cognition deconstruction phase
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The cognitive distortion of making conclusions without supporting and relevant evidence is:
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arbitrary inferences.
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The cognitive distortion that consists of forming conclusions based on an isolated detail of an event is:
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selective abstraction.
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The process of holding extreme beliefs on the basis of a single incident and applying them inappropriately to dissimilar events or settings is known as:
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overgeneralization.
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The tendency for individuals to relate external events to themselves, even when there is no basis for making this connection, is known as:
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personalization.
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The cognitive distortion that involves portraying one’s identity on the basis of imperfections and mistakes made in the past and allowing them to define one’s true identity is:
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labeling and mislabeling.
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To a large degree, cognitive therapy is:
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a psychoeducational model.
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The concept of automatic thoughts plays a central role in whose theory?
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Beck
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Of the following cognitive techniques, which one would Beck be least likely to employ?
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confronting the masturbatory thinking of a client
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According to Meichenbaum, the first step in the change process involves:
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observing one’s behavior and thinking patterns.
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The constructivist perspective in cognitive therapy holds that:
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there are multiple realities and a therapist’s task is to help clients appreciate how they construct their realities and how they author their own stories.
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Which of the following is not a characteristic of Meichenbaum’s constructivist approach to cognitive behavior therapy?
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It is more structured and more directive than standard cognitive therapy.
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Jim told Margie, a cognitive therapist who has adopted a constructivist perspective, that he is a prisoner of his dysfunctional past. Margie should do all of the following except:
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steer Jim away from telling his story since storytelling is regarded as a form of resistance.
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Cognitive behavioral therapists assist clients in using language that:
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all of these (a. is not self-condemning. b. depicts the client’s thoughts in a rational and accurate manner. c. replaces absolutes with preferences.)
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Which of the following statements is true with regard to the fit between the cognitive behavioral approaches and multicultural counseling?
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There is an “almost perfect fit” between cognitive behavior therapy and multicultural counseling because these perspectives share common assumptions that make integration possible.
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Roberto, who struggles with feeling inadequate as a provider and husband, has come to work with a cognitive behavioral therapist. In addition to feeling inadequate, he feels angry that he has been marginalized by the mainstream culture. As his therapist, you should do all of the following except:
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impress Roberto with your use of jargon to reinforce that you are the expert.
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A noteworthy strength of the cognitive behavioral approaches is:
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they have strong empirical support.
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To what does the term “cognitive triad” refer?
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It is a pattern that triggers depression.
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Sandra is a reality therapist who is meeting her client Paul, who struggles with career indecision, for the first time. How might she begin her work with Paul?
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by asking Paul what he wants from therapy
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Reality therapy is best categorized as:
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a form of cognitive behavior therapy.
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Reality therapy has gained popularity with:
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all of the above (a. school counselors and administrators. b. school teachers, both elementary and secondary. c. rehabilitation workers.)
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Reality therapy is best described as:
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a short-term therapy that stresses doing.
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The client’s quality world consists of all of the following except:
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insight.
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Which of the following is not a component of total behavior?
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wanting
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A reality therapist would most likely respond to a client’s complaint of melancholy, sad mood by saying:
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“Sounds like you’re depressing.”
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The function of the reality therapist is:
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to assist clients in dealing with the present.
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Wubboding believes all of the following encourage the client’s involvement in therapy except for:
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allowing the client to focus on symptoms.
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In reality therapy, the counseling environment is:
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characterized by a therapeutic climate that establishes the foundation for implementing procedures .
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Which method(s) is (are) often used in reality therapy?
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all of these (a. behavior-oriented methods b. the use of questioning c. exploring a client’s quality world d.designing an action plan)
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What is Robert Wubbolding likely to say about people’s problems?
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“People don’t have problems, they have solutions that have not worked.”
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Which of the following procedures would a reality therapist be least likely to employ?
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reliving an early childhood event
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Which of the following is not a function of the reality therapist?
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focusing on areas in the client’s life that need improvement so that he or she can achieve a “success identity”
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All of the following are true about planning and commitment in reality therapy, except:
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A great deal of time is spent on this step of reality therapy.
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Reality therapy is based on which of the following orientations to understanding human behavior?
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existential-phenomenological
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What do reality therapists believe about the use of questions?
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Relevant questions help clients gain insights and arrive at plans and solutions.
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Reality therapists are likely to deal with all of the following except for:
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asking clients to recall, report, and share dreams.
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A reality therapist will primarily focus on:
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present behavior.
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When reality therapists explore a client’s past, they tend to focus on:
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past successes.
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In reality therapy, the purpose of developing an action plan is:
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to arrange for successful experience.
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In reality therapy, when a client fails to carry out their plans, the therapist will:
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challenge the client to accept the reasonable consequence of his or her behavior.
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Which of the following is (are) a contribution of reality therapy?
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It provides a structure for both clients and therapist to evaluate the degree and the nature of changes.
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Reality therapy rests on the central idea that:
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we choose our behavior and are responsible for what we do, think, and feel.
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Glasser would agree with all of the following conclusions except:
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We are most likely to change if we are threatened by punishment.
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The core of reality therapy consists of:
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teaching clients to take effective control of their own lives.
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A limitation of this approach as it applies to multicultural counseling is:
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oppressed clients may have little choice over their circumstances.
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All of the following are procedures that are commonly used in reality therapy except:
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exploring early recollections.
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Which of the following procedures would a reality therapist be least likely to employ?
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asking a client to emotionally reexperience a childhood experience
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In a reality therapy group, the leader:
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may encounter resistance from members when providing suggestions for how clients can best get what they want.
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All of the following are key characteristics of contemporary reality therapy except for:
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There is a focus on talking about symptoms that bring a client into therapy.
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Which of these statements is not true?
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Reality therapy does not lend itself to a group format.
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In working with Japanese clients, a reality therapist might do which of the following when asking clients to make plans and commit to them?
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The therapist might be likely to accept “I’ll try” as a firm commitment.
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According to Glasser, many of the problems of clients are caused by:
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their inability to connect or to have a satisfying relationship with at least one of the significant people in their lives.
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From the perspective of feminist therapy, the socialization of women inevitably affects their:
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all of these (a. identity development. b. self-concept. c. goals and aspirations. d. emotional well-being.)
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What do the four feminist philosophies (liberal, cultural, radical, and socialist feminism) have in common?
answer

the same goal of activism
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Feminist therapists, regardless of their philosophical orientation, believe all of the following except that:
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human development and interaction are similar across races, cultures, and nations.
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Stephanie, who believes strongly in feminist principles, is working in an agency that requires therapists to diagnose their clients using the DSM. Stephanie is likely to consider which of the following questions?
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Who benefits from using this label? How might this label contribute to disempowering the person to whom it is assigned?
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Which of the feminist principles views the therapist as simply another source of information, rather than as the expert in the therapy process?
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The counseling relationship is egalitarian.
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Which of the following feminist principles recognizes the importance of working against oppression and discrimination on the basis of race, class, culture, religious beliefs, sexual orientation, age, and disability?
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All types of oppression are recognized.
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Which of the following feminist principles implies that what has been typically viewed as individual clients’ personal problems are really socially and politically caused?
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The person is political.
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All of the following are goals of feminist therapy except for:
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resolving intrapsychic conflicts from early childhood.
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Although feminist therapy shares many of the premises of person-centered therapy, feminist therapy does not agree with the notion that:
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the therapeutic relationship is, in and of itself, sufficient to produce change.
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Which of the following themes would clients in feminist therapy be least likely to explore?
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transference reactions toward their therapist
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After having a bad therapeutic experience with a mental health professional who pathologized her anxiety over financial issues, Lillian decided to consult with a feminist therapist. How is her new therapist likely to view her anxiety symptoms?
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as a sign of distress rather than psychopathology
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Of the following, which intervention would a feminist therapist probably consider most essential?
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social action
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All of the following are reasons many feminist therapists do not use diagnostic labels, or use them reluctantly, except that:
answer

diagnostic labels focus on the social factors that cause dysfunctional behavior.
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The preferred alternative to traditional diagnosis and assessment of feminist therapists is:
answer

gender role analysis.
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Which of the following interventions involves a shift from “blaming the victim” to consideration of social factors in the environment that contribute to a client’s problem?
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reframing
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All of the following strategies are unique to feminist therapy except for:
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cognitive restructuring.
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Of the following, which is not an assumption shared by the cognitive behavioral and feminist therapy approaches?
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assuming that the therapeutic relationship alone is necessary and sufficient to bring about change
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Who is most noted for her contributions to the development of feminist therapy?
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Laura Brown
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A feminist therapist is likely to become an advocate for change in the social structure by arguing for:
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all of these (a. the right to self-determination. b. the freedom to pursue a career outside the home. c. the right to an education. d. equality in power in relationships.)
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Of the following, which is one of the major contributions that feminists have made to the field of counseling?
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paving the way for gender-sensitive practice
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Which of these statements is not true about lesbian feminism?
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Queer theory and lesbian theory are identical.
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The constructs of feminist theory, in contrast to traditional theories, include all of the following except for which characteristic?
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intrapsychic orientation
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The relational-cultural theory emphasizes the vital role:
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that relationships and connectedness with others play in the lives of women.
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The feminist perspectives on the development of personality:
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all of these (a. encompass the diversity and complexity of women’s lives. b. attend to the ways in which diversity influences self-structures. c. recognize the inextricable connection between internal and external worlds. d. acknowledge the political and social oppression of women.)
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Which of the following principles of feminist psychology is most aimed at advancing a transformation in society?
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Commitment to social change.
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The feminist approach to group counseling involves all of the following except:
answer

an opportunity to experience and analyze multiple transferences.
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During the past 20 years ____________ have found classic feminist theories wanting and have offered new theoretical perspectives focused on issues of diversity, the complexity of sexism, and the centrality of social context in understanding gender issues.
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postmodern feminists
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A limit of the feminist approach from a diversity perspective is:
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the tendency to impose upon a client personal values that may not be consistent with the client’s cultural framework.
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Which of the following is not considered one of the six core principles of feminist therapy?
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an intrapsychic orientation
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Feminist therapists reject:
answer

the androcentric view.
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A solution-oriented therapist might ask her client, a compulsive shopper, which of the following questions?
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If a miracle happened and your shopping compulsion was solved overnight, how would you know it was solved, and what would be different?
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The postmodern view incorporates all of the following concepts except for the notion that:
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reality is objectively defined.
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Donna feels certain that no one will ever want to hire her because she has a timid personality. Her solution-oriented therapist would be most inclined to:
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ask Donna to examine another side of the story she is presenting about herself and think of times when she was accepted by others.
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In the view of the postmodern therapist, the most essential element of therapy is:
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the collaborative therapeutic relationship.
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All of the following are techniques used in solution-focused therapy except for:
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using the reflecting team
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All of the following are characteristics shared by the postmodern and person-centered approaches except:
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the importance of using specific techniques in therapy.
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All are true of solution-focused brief therapists except that they:
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focus on the client’s early childhood experiences.
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In the solution-oriented approach, which is not considered one of the three basic parts to the structure of summary feedback?
answer

expressing concern
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The therapeutic process in solution-focused brief therapy involves:
answer

all of these (a. the premise that to some degree clients already know the solutions to their problems. b. asking clients about those times when their problems were not present or when the problems were less severe. c. believing that clients are the experts on their own lives. d. trusting that solutions evolve out of therapeutic conversations and dialogues.)
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Which of the following is false as it applies to the practice of solution-focused brief therapy?
answer

Using techniques in therapy is a way of discounting a client’s capacity to find his or her own way.
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Narrative therapy has been found to be particularly effective with diverse client populations for all of the following reasons except:
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it teaches diverse clients to replace their own narratives with ones that conform more closely to the ideals and values of mainstream culture.
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The role of the leader in solution-focused therapy groups is not:
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to provide clients with simple solutions to their problems.
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Which of these solution-focused therapy techniques involves asking clients to describe times in their lives when they were able to solve their problem or when their problem was less severe?
answer

exception questions
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Solution-focused brief therapy has parallels with______________, which concentrates on what, is right and what is working for people rather than dwelling on deficits, weaknesses, and problems.
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positive psychology
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Which of the following statements about creating alternative stories is not true?
answer

The narrative therapist analyzes and interprets the meaning of a client’s story.
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From a social constructionist perspective, change begins with:
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deconstructing the power of cultural narratives.
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Of the following, what is an interest that social constructionists tend to share?
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generating new meaning in the lives of individuals
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The techniques of externalization and developing unique events are associated primarily with:
answer

the narrative approach.
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Narrative therapists attempt to do all of the following except:
answer

encourage free association.
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Narrative therapists pay attention to “sparkling events.” These are:
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events that contradict problem-saturated narratives.
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The creation of the self, which dominated the modernist search for human essence and truth:
answer

is being replaced by postmodernists with the concept of socially storied lives.
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A limitation of the postmodern approaches is:
answer

inexperienced therapists may over rely on techniques and appear mechanistic.
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Which is not a major contribution of the postmodern approaches?
answer

research on these approaches is considered empirically generalizable.
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The founder(s) of solution-focused brief therapy is (are):
answer

Insoo Kim Berg and Steve de Shazer.
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The founder(s) of narrative therapy is (are):
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Michael White and David Epston
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Who was the first person of the modern era to do family therapy?
answer

Adler
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Which family therapist made use of innovative interventions such as metaphor, reframing, rules for interaction, parts party, family reconstructions, family sculpting, and family maps?
answer

Satir
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Which of the following statements about strategic family therapy is not true?
answer

Presenting problems are viewed as being symptomatic of a dysfunction within the system.
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Alfred Adler was the first to notice that the development of children within family constellations was heavily influenced by:
answer

birth order.
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Postmodern thought has contributed to family therapy by:
answer

promoting the therapist’s view of clients as the experts on their own lives.
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Who was the person who refined Adler’s concepts into a typology of mistaken goals and an organized approach to family therapy?
answer

Rudolf Dreikurs
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The concept of triangulation is most associated with:
answer

Murray Bowen.
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From the family systems perspective, symptoms are often viewed as:
answer

an expression of a set of habits and patterns within a family.
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What is the technique in family therapy that casts a new light on a problem and provides a different interpretation for a problematic situation?
answer

reframing
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A major contribution of Bowen’s theory is the notion of:
answer

differentiation of the self
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The systems perspective implies:
answer

individuals are best understood through the context of their role in their family.
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Which is(are) a key role (or roles) of most family therapists?
answer

all of these (a. teacher b. model c. coach d. consultant)
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Which of the following techniques is a strategic family therapist least likely to use?
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family sculpting
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A tool for collecting and organizing key relationships in a three-generational extended family is a:
answer

genogram.
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Which of the following roles and functions would be least interesting to a structural family therapist?
answer

giving voice to the therapist’s own impulses and fantasies
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Which of the following is least associated with Satir’s human validation process model?
answer

storied lives and narratives
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The one central principle agreed upon by family therapy practitioners, regardless of their particular approach, is that
answer

the client is connected to living systems.
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Which approach to family therapy contends that one’s current family problems will not significantly change until relationship patterns in one’s family of origin are understood and directly challenged?
answer

Bowenian family therapy
question

The techniques of joining, accommodating, unbalancing, tracking, and boundary making are most likely to be part of which approach to family therapy?
answer

structural family therapy
question

A major contribution of Whitaker’s approach to family therapy is:
answer

spontaneity, creativity, and play as therapeutic factors in family therapy.
question

Roger and his wife are experiencing tension in their relationship because he believes she is far too lenient with their children when they misbehave. This forces him to play the role of “bad cop” as a parent, which makes him angry. A family therapist working with Roger and his family might:
answer

help to modify the family’s transactional rules and develop more appropriate boundaries.
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____________________ views the counselor and therapist as an observer who is outside of the system, can assess what is going on, and can promote change—all without ever becoming part of the system.
answer

First-order cybernetics
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Chun Hei is a Korean immigrant who has been separated from her family and friends for over a year since she came to the U.S. with her husband. She spends her days taking care of their two young children while he goes to work, and feels increasingly depressed without her support system. It is likely that a family therapist who meets Chun Hei:
answer

would be very interested in how her depression affects others in the family and how it influences family process.
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Which approach assumes that a family can best be understood when it is analyzed from at least a three-generational perspective?
answer

Bowenian family therapy
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Which approach asserts that emotional fusion to one’s family must be addressed if one hopes to achieve a mature and unique personality?
answer

Bowenian family therapy
question

A couple directs the focus of their energy toward a problematic son as a way to avoid facing or dealing with their own conflicts. This is an example of:
answer

triangulation.
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In working with a triangulated relationship, Bowen would be inclined to place primary emphasis on:
answer

maintaining a stance of neutrality.
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Structural family therapy includes all of the following goals except for bringing about structural change by:
answer

the therapist taking a not-knowing stance with a family.
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The opposite of a differentiated self is experienced as:
answer

emotional reactivity.
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To prevent his parents from leaving the house, Miguel throws temper tantrums. His parents have given in to his demands and never go out to dinner or to movies anymore. A structural/strategic therapist working with Miguel and his parents will most likely:
answer

have them participate in an enactment during the therapy session.
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Which of the following individuals is not associated with family therapy?
answer

Albert Ellis
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Which approach would be most interested in the appropriateness of hierarchical structure in the family?
answer

structural family therapy
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Jean-Pierre told the family therapist that his wife loses control of her temper with their children because of his demanding work schedule and his inability to be there to support her. Which communication stance has he adopted?
answer

placating
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Family atmosphere, family constellation, and mistaken goals are key concepts of:
answer

Adlerian family therapy.
question

Yelina seems to ignore the major marital problems that she and her husband Carlos are having as a result of sharp differences in their viewpoints on political and social issues that are affecting their native country, Cuba. Whenever a friend points out the tension she observes, Yelina changes the subject and talks about the weather forecast. Yelina is adopting which of the following communication stances?
answer

irrelevant
question

Which of the following theorists emphasized the development of a nurturing triad?
answer

Satir
question

Adlerian family therapy strives to ______ as its goal.
answer

establish and support parents as effective leaders of the family
question

Problem descriptions and goal identification, typical day, the child interview and goal disclosure are techniques used in:
answer

Adlerian family therapy.
question

A potential limitation of the family systems model is:
answer

a particular family member’s needs may be overshadowed by the needs of the system.
question

The therapy goals of promoting growth, self-esteem, and connection, and helping family members achieve congruent communication and interaction are most associated with which theory of family therapy?
answer

Satir’s human validation process model

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