CLO 3 – Chemistry

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Name the six most common chemical elements in living organisms
Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Phosphorus, sulfur
Describe the structure of an atom with respect to the arrangement of protons, neutrons, and electrons
your protons and neutrons are located in the center of the atom with the electron orbiting outside. The electrons are negative charged, the protons are positive, and neutrons have no charge.
List the properties of protons, neutrons, and electrons with respect to mass and electrical charge
Protons- positive charge, 1.673×10^-24g
electrons- negative charge, 9.11×10^-28g, relatively no mass
neutrons- no charge, 1.675×10^-24g
Explain the relationship between electron orbitals and energy shells (energy levels)
Electron orbital is how the electron orbits around the nucleus. the energy shells are the different steps in the orbital. First one has 2 electrons, second has 8 electrons.
a discrete distance from the nucleus where electrons have different states of potential energy, farther away from nucleus
Predict the relative amount of potential energy in electrons that occupy orbitals in different energy shells
The highest shell, has the greatest potential energy and is also the shell that forms all interactions with other atoms. aka valence electrons.
Explain how covalent bonds, ionic bonds, and hydrogen bonds differ from one another
covalent bonds- bond formed by the sharing of the bonding electrons
ionic bonds- electronegativity above 2, formed by the attraction of two oppositely charged atoms or molecules
hydrogen bonds- a hydrogen atom bonded to either a O, N, F by a dotted line
Explain the difference between a non polar covalent bond and a polar covalent bond
non polar covalent- electrons send equal time around the nucleus of both atoms
polar covalent- electrons spend more time around the nucleus of one atom than the other
Describe, in basic terms, how a hydrogen bond forms between two molecules. Your
explanation should include references to electronegativity and partial charges of the
atoms and molecules involved in the bond
Hydrogen bonds are different from covalent and ionic bonds because they share electrons but they also have partial negative and positive charges represented by a dotted line. They form between two already created chemical bonds and are shown with the delta symbol.
List similarities and differences between hydrogen bonds and ionic bonds
They both have charges but ionic bonds have complete charges and also very strong unless around water. Hydrogen bonds have partial charges, form in between bonds, usually very weak but very strong collectively and are short-lived.
Explain how polar covalent bonds and hydrogen bonds contribute to the special
properties of water
The covalent bond of H2O leaves the oxygen atom partially charged and the hydrogen atoms partial negative. Because H2O is a BENT structure it is polar. The hydrogen bond forms between the partially charged oxygen atom and another molecules partially negative hydrogen atoms. This can only happen with hydrogen and either oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine.
Explain the relationships among hydrogen ion concentration, acidity, and the pH scale
The pH ranges from 1 – 14 with 7 being neutral. It is determined in a logarithm by moles. Acidity is considered 1 – 6.999. Base is 8 – 14. When a solution is acidic it has a greater hydrogen ion concentration and a lower pH. The higher the base the LESS hydrogen ion concentrations and the higher the pH. It goes up by 10’s. (Scientific notation)

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