Classification Vocabulary List Flashcard

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biodiversity
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the variety of organisms considered at all levels from populations to ecosystems
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taxonomy
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practice of classifying plants and animals according to their presumed natural relationships
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taxon
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group or level of organization into which organisms are classified
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domain
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most inclusive taxonomic category; larger than a kingdom
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kingdom
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second largest taxonomic group; there are six – animalia, plantae, protista, eubacteria, archaebacteria, fungi
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phylum
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major classification, second to kingdom, of plants and animals; division
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division
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in taxonomy, a grouping of similar classes of plants
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class
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a taxonomic group containing one or more orders
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order
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taxonomic group containing one or more families
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family
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a taxonomic group containing one or more genera
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genus
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taxonomic group containing one or more species
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species
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a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring
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subspecies
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populations of the same species that differ genetically because of adaptations to different living conditions
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variety
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a taxonomic category consisting of members of a species that differe from others of the same species in minor but heritable characteristics
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strain
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(biology) a group of organisms within a species that differ in trivial ways from similar groups
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binomial nomenclature
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a system for giving each organism a two-word scientific name that consists of the genus name followed by the species name
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systematics
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The study of biological diversity in an environmental context, encompassing taxonomy and involving the reconstruction of phylogenetic history.
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phylogenetics/phylogeny
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the analysis of evolutionary, or ancestral, relationships between taxa
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phylogenetic diagram (tree)
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a branching diagram that models the relationships by ancestry between different species or other taxonomic groups
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homologous features
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structures that share a common origin but may serve different functions in modern species (e.g. dolphins flippers and human hands)
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analogous features
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features that are similar in appearance and function, but do not appear to have the same evolutionary origin
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cladistics
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biological classification system based on phylogeny; assumes that as groups of organisms diverge and evolve from a common ancestral group, they retain derived traits
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shared character
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A feature that is shared by all members of a particular group of organisms, an evolutionary novelty unique to a particular clade
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derived character
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a feature that evolved only within a particular taxonomic group
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clade
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A group of species that includes an ancestral species and all its descendants.
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cladogram
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Diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms
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molecular clock
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uses DNA comparisons to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independently
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amnion
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the extraembryonic membrane in birds, reptiles and mammals that surrounds the embryo, forming an amniotic sac
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eukaryote/eukaryotic
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a cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
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prokaryote/prokaryotic
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a unicellular organism having cells lacking membrane-bound nuclei
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Bacteria
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domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls containing peptidoglycans
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Archaea
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Single-celled, no nucleus, Live in harsh condisions, oldest organisms on earth
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Eukarya
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domain of all organisms whose cells have nuclei, including protists, plants, fungi, and animals.
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Theory of Endosymbiosis
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eukaryotes formed when a large prokaryote engulfed a smaller prokaryote and the two organisms lived symbioticlly, eventually evolving into a single organism
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Archaebacteria
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bacteria that live under extreme conditions such as: high temperature, high salt content, and low oxygen
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Protista (protists)
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Kingdom composed of eukaryotes that are not classified as plants, animals, or fungi.
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Fungi
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a kingdom of eukaryotic organisms. They are heterotrophic and digest their food externally, absorbing nutrient molecules into their cells
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Plantae
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the taxonomic kingdom comprising all living or extinct plants
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Animalia
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taxonomic kingdom comprising all living or extinct animals

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