civil war literature unit

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stephen crane
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1871-1900
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stephen crane
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Born into family of writers- 14th child of Methodist minister
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stephen crane
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brilliant, but not studious
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stephen crane
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loved unusual words, books, athletics
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stephen crane
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No college degree-became newspaper reporter for 2 NY papers and was a free-lance writer
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stephen crane
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Very poor- writing paid little
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stephen crane
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Died of TB age 28
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stephen crane
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Wrote America’s 1st naturalistic novel
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stephen crane
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Later wrote the popular Civil War story The Red Badge of Courage
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stephen crane
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Was a war correspondent In Greece-Greco-Turkish War
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stephen crane
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In Cuba-Spanish-American War-Shipwrecked- wrote \”The Open Boat,\” most famous short story
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stephen crane
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Wrote 2 small volumes of poetry- poems had simple forms with sharp, vivid images
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stephen crane
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influenced by naturalists- fatalists and pessimists who expressed their ideas with stark honesty
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stephen crane
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fiction includes ironic twists and bitterly scornful views which he captures with symbols, light and color
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stephen crane
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believed in the importance of science- that heredity predetermines character and that the \”environment is a tremendous thing…shapes lives\”
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Civil War near a woods
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what was the setting of an episode of war
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Doesn’t matter-could be either one
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in an episode of war is the setting in the north or south?
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there were none, the characters were not developed
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in an episode of war what were the names of the characters?
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The protagonist merely represents the human condition that all are potential victims of war; chance is equal.
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in an episode of war why were the characters not developed?
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ironic understatement
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in an episode of war the title is an…
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reporter style of story
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The \”episode\” is a really a disaster yet choice is fitting for…
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style of episode of war
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Story is a series of vignettes (brief descriptions written with precision and grace to give a vivid impression) of photographic details
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Coffee Shot and woods Sword scene Men watching him Woods Charge preparation
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what are 6 of the vignettes in an episode of war?
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new scene which suggests trivial action of no consequence yet the consequences are significant (wound, battle, and amputation)
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Each paragraph = what in an episode of war?
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The lieutenant is powerless after the shot and cannot hold or sheathe his sword. The men stare but don’t touch him.
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the action in an episode of war
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The wound symbolizes to the men, their mortality, \”… they are little,\” means they could have been hit.
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the symbolism in an episode of war
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the lieutenant his ability to see reality and to understand the meaninglessness and chaos of war.
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the wound symbolizes to..?
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The Lt. observes the battle as a \”historical painting.\”
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Action = ?? (an episode of war)
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His wounded arm is compared 2x to \”brittle glass\” Foreshadowing? It will probably \”break.\”
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analogy= ? (an episode of war)
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Wounded at field hosp., \”no longer having part in the battle, knew more than others.\”
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paradox= ? (an episode of war)
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Because outsiders have perspective to see overall pattern of battle and its chaos and futility
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Wounded at field hosp., \”no longer having part in the battle, knew more than others.\” how could this statement be true? (an episode of war)
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officer and doctor treat him in scolding manner with impatience, scorn, and disdain. Why? To keep up his spirits and bravery, or is it because they have lost their sympathy and are detached?
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the lieutenant’s powerlessness= what and why (an episode of war)
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Lt. tells doctor powerlessly, \”I guess I won’t have it amputated.\”
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understatement=? (an episode of war)
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He has absolutely no say.
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meaning=? (an episode of war)
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\”I don’t suppose it matters so much as all that.\”
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later what does the lieutenant say? (an episode of war)
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Walt whitman
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\”For You O Democracy\”
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ode to ideal of democracy, camaraderie of a united America-love of each other
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the topic of for you o democracy
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American sights: sun shone, rivers, trees, lakes, prairies; American sounds \”trilling songs\”
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imagery in for you o democracy
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\”cities with arms about each other’s necks;\” \”O Democracy, to serve you ma femme;\” \”plant companionship\”
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personification used in for you o democracy
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these, me, democracy
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Assonance (vowel rep.) long e’s are what in for you o democracy
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I will inseparable cities with
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short i assonance in for you o democracy
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\”I will,\” \”with,\” \”For you,\” \”By the\”
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repetition in for you o democracy
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abe lincoln assassinated april 14 1865
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who is the captain in o captain my captain?
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captain
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Union won Civil War, but lost their (o captain my captain)
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the union to a ship
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analogy in o captain my captain
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funeral
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End of war celebration becomes a what in o captain my captain?
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washington DC to new york city to illinois for his burial
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Funeral train for Lincoln went from where to where?
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Daughter has a letter from brother in war, calls family to hear news
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what is the topic of the poem \”come up from the fields father\”?
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nature in autumn, the harvest colors: green, yellow, and red, the harvest smells: grapes, buckwheat, the harvest sounds: bees buzzing
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what is the imagery in come up from the fields father
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happiness and sadness; life and death
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contrast between what two things in come up from the fields father
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not from son, about son’s severe injuries, no hope he’ll be better soon
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the letter in come up from the fields father states what
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Dad faints, leans, turns white; family cries, kids are puzzled and scared.
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what are the reactions of the letter in come up from the fields father
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reality that son is dead, Mom’s grief is deepest, she dresses in black, can’t sleep, cries, longs for son constantly, is suicidal.
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what is the time shift in come up from the fields father
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now death and black and midnight have replaced bright colors
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sharp contrast with earlier harvest life changes to what in come up from the fields father?
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assonance long o’s signifies mourning
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what is the language in come up from the fields father?
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better, brave, boy, stand, door, dead, already, dead waking, weeping, withdraw
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Consonance and alliteration of harsh sounds reflect harsh reality = what in come up from the fields father
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be better (which equals hope)
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what is the repetition in come up from the fields father
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narrator takes in a runaway slave- probably abolitionist
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what is the plot in a song to myself
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true
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true or false Narrator treats slave as equal- good room, eats with him (a song to myself)
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bathing, dressing wounds, giving clothes, offering week’s lodging, being welcoming and kind, putting away gun
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Narrator helps him with: What? (a song to myself)
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unusual words
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\”limpsy, sweated, bruis’d, plasters, gall, pass’d\” are examples of (a song to myself)
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crackling twigs
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imagery in a song to myself
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working middle class whose \”songs\” are their labors
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what is the metaphor in i hear america singing?
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the true dignity of one’s labor and the pride and happiness that working people feel for their contributions to America (individuals contribute to a greater good)
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figuratively suggests what? (i hear america singing)
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mechanic, carpenter, mason, boatman, deckhand, shoemaker, hatter, woodcutter, ploughboy, mother, young wife, seamstress
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He idealizes common people and their daytime jobs: (i hear america singing)
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nighttime celebration of group of young men singing own songs together (individuals yet connected by work)
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last two lines= what? (i hear america singing)
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free verse which gives a lively sing-song style with repetition, alliteration- rather like an anthem
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language= what? (i hear america singing)
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walt whitman
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1819-1892
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walt whitman
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Family poor, grew up in Brooklyn, NY, taught him about human nature
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walt whitman
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New York newspaper reporter 1839-1848-gave him his objective reporter’s style
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walt whitman
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Poetry influenced by father’s death and his trip to New Orleans in 1848 where he discovered the nation’s diversity.
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walt whitman
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The public response to his revolutionary poetry was mixed. Returned to newspaper reporting to earn a living
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walt whitman
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During the CW, he volunteered to help the wounded and then later worked for VA hospitals and govt.
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walt whitman
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Suffered stroke in 1873
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walt whitman
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America’s first modern poet
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walt whitman
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Published the first of many editions of Leaves of Grass in 1855
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walt whitman
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Wrote about the ideal of working-class democracy
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walt whitman
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Experimented with form- Used:Free verse rhythms (no fixed pattern of meter and rhyme) Realistic imagery
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emily dickinson
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1830-1886
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emily dickinson
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Lived in Amherst, MA (called the Belle of Amherst)
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emily dickinson
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Life for women was restrictive
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emily dickinson
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attended Amherst Academy and then Mt. Holyoke College for one year
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emily dickinson
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Objected to the strict Calvinist views of the New England church and quit college when she was being forced to convert to Calvinism
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emily dickinson
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withdrew from public life at age 23 and lived in seclusion in her parents’ home (most in one room)- usually wore white clothing
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emily dickinson
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Began writing in 1850 and often assembled her poetry in packets with needle and thread
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emily dickinson
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Emerson huge influence, esp. idea of self-reliance
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emily dickinson
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sent poetry to an editor, Thomas Higginson, who admired genius and found punctuation to be unusual and diction (choice and use of words) to be quaint. He saved poetry for posterity
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emily dickinson
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did not wish for recognition for her work. Only a few of 1,775 poems were published during lifetime.
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emily dickinson
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sister published the first books of her poetry in 1891-1896
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emily dickinson
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Complete works published for the first time in 1955.
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emily dickinson
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Uses excessive dashes
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emily dickinson
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Capitalizes common nouns
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emily dickinson
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Chose each word carefully so the connotation of words is important
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emily dickinson
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Uses slant rhymes End rhyme in which the vowel sounds are not exactly the same. E.g. \”unfurled\” and \”world\”
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emily dickinson
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Cryptic – she leaves out more than she includes
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Seemingly neutral view of a boy’s fear of snakes
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topic of a narrow fellow in the grass
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Inverted syntax line 4 \”His notice sudden is-\” Use of dashes, erratic capitalization (key nouns)
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style of a narrow fellow in the grass
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\”boggy acre, cool for corn, unbraiding in the sun, tighter breathing and zero at the bone, barefoot boy\”
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imagery in a narrow fellow in the grass
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snake
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metaphor in a narrow fellow in the grass spotted shaft, whip lash=
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simile
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\”grass divides as with a comb\” (a narrow fellow in the grass)
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alliteration
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\”sun, stooping secure\” \”barefoot boy\” (a narrow fellow in the grass)
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repetition
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And then, And opens, I know, I feel\” (a narrow fellow in the grass)
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natures people
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personification (a narrow fellow in the grass) snake=
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diction
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neutral words \”fellow\” \”transport of cordiality\” show that narrator likes most animals, and ironically, the word \”snake\” is never mentioned Adds to feeling of terror in last stanza (a narrow fellow in the grass)
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the narrator is terrified of snakes
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what is the truth in a narrow fellow in the grass?
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the narrator finds God in nature, not a church
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what is the topic of Some Keep the Sabbath Going to Church?
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style of some keep the sabbath going to church
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Use of dashes, erratic capitalization (key nouns)
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imagery in some keep the sabbath going to church
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\”bobolink, orchard, dome, bell, surplice, wings\”
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orchard
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extended metaphor for church in nature (some keep the sabbath going to church)
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bobolink
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singer, sexton= what in some keep the sabbath going to church
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wings
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her white clothes as a symbol of her goodness, soul= what in some keep the sabbath going to church
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God
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her clergymen, has short sermons= who in some keep the sabbath going to church
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alliteration and repetition
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what other devices are used in some keep the sabbath going to church
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diction (some keep the sabbath going to church)
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Images from nature connection to religion, \”Church, Home, Orchard, Dome, Sabbath, Surplice\”
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meaning of some keep the sabbath going to church
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Deist, Transcendental and Romantic idea of experiencing God through nature. Dickinson did not like organized religion, especially Calvinism with its strict rules and long sermons =
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The narrator’s calm and accepting view of the natural transition to death and eternity
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topic of because i could not stop for death
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style of i could not stop for death
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Inverted syntax line 15 \”For only Gossamer, my Gown-\” Use of dashes, erratic capitalization (key nouns)
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imagery in i could not stop for death
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\”school, fields of gazing grain, setting sun, dews quivering and chill, gossamer, tulle, swelling of ground, horses’ heads\”
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death
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kindly, gentleman caller who arrives in a carriage as for a date= ?? (i could not stop for death)
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school
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childhood=? (i could not stop for death)
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maturity
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fields of grain=? (i could not stop for death)
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death
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setting sun =? (i could not stop for death)
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grave
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stanza 5 house in ground= ? (i could not stop for death)
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alliteration in i could not stop for death
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\”labor and leisure, recess in the ring, dews drew, Hoses’ Heads, Tippet-only Tulle, Gossamer, my Gown\”
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repetition
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we passed 3 times (i could not stop for death)
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personification
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grim reaper is portrayed as a benevolent, kindly person (i could not stop for death)
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diction in i could not stop for death
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calm words, reflective tone \”no haste, put away labor and leisure for death’s civility, \”Tippet (shawl), Tulle (fine net cloth), and Gossamer (wings) all her heavenly garb, but also refers to white clothing she wore.
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meaning of i could not stop for death
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Narrator is not afraid of the natural process of death and her calm attitude is apparent in her description of her trip to eternity.
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magic realism
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reality is heightened, time is rearranged, and the dream life of the imagination is woven tightly into physical events, colors, and sounds; sensations come to life with extraordinary vividness
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stream of consciousness
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the recording or reaction of a character’s flow of thoughts without any attempt at explanation; thoughts, images, ideas, memories, and time periods flow together
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ambrose bierce
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after the war earned his living in journalism and gain recognition as a talented satirical, and embittered man
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ambrose bierce
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his stories, which appeared in newspapers and journals, were written with extreme forcefulness, evidencing a firsthand knowledge of the horrors of war.
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it’s iambic, single syllable, short sharp words, heavy accents, strong rhythm
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how is the language rhythmic like a watch ticking? (an occurance at owl creek bridge)
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it was unexpected, last thing the world you would think
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why does the last sentence in an occurance at owl creek bridge have shock value?
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you don’t know what’s going to happen next you’re going to die
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what does this paragraph tell you about the man who hears the watch? (an occurance at owl creek bridge)
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there is going to be an occurrence, death,
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explain the titles significance (an occurrence at owl creek creek bridge)
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there’s going to be a death at owl creek bridge
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what irony does the title imply? (an occurrence at owl creek bridge)
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each death in war is horrific it shouldn’t be demoted to be an occurrence
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based on this title, what do you think the theme of the story is? (an occurrence at owl creek bridge)
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northern alabama end of civil war 1864
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place (an occurrence at owl creek bridge)
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somewhat neutral as a matter of fact somber quiet then ire and creepy
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mood (an occurrence at owl creek bridge)
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less than one minute
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how long does the real action of the story take? (an occurrence at owl creek bridge)
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hanging of farquar southern planter tries burning bridge then got hung dreams of escaping
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write a plot outline of the action in one or two complete sentences (an occurrence at owl creek bridge)
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they are on looking, they are in a routine sets this matter of fact objective of tone
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why does the lack of dialogue in the first three paragraphs make the opening more effective than it would be if the soldiers were conversing? (an occurrence at owl creek bridge)
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there is silence because of etiquette paying due to their friends
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how do the soldiers react to the hanging? (an occurrence at owl creek bridge)
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death is a dignity who when he comes announced is to be received with formal manifestations of respect, even by those familiar with him
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how does the author explain the silence of the soldiers reaction to the hanging (an occurrence at owl creek bridge)
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a flashback
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what is the technique called when the author interrupts the story to reveal some past events?
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because he tried to burn the railroad
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why is he currently being hanged? (an occurrence at owl creek bridge)
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no
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does his (farquar) social status matter? (an occurrence at owl creek bridge)
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yes because he was warned
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is the hanging fair? (an occurrence at owl creek bridge)
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it gives you background information, it’s a good starter (the liberal military code makes provision for hanging many kinds of person’s and gentlemen are not included)
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why is it dramatically more effective to have this scene occur after part 1 rather than before it (the hanging scene an occurrence at owl creek bridge)
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was willing to die for slavery
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what does it mean that he was a \”student of hanging who was a soldier at heart\”? (an occurrence at owl creek bridge)
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he is one of many victims of the civil war
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why isn’t farquhar more fully characterized? (an occurrence at owl creek bridge)
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we just need to know why he is being hanged
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what does this reveal about the main purpose of the story? (about farquhar being more fully characterized) (an occurrence at owl creek bridge)
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getting killed, hung, fear of hurting
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what fears of this dying man are revealed in his fantasy? (an occurrence at owl creek bridge)
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to see wife and family try to get a way out of beautiful nature
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what longings of this dying man are revealed in his fantasy? (an occurrence at owl creek bridge)
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sand looks like rubys and diamonds, leaves he could see all their veins, could hear fish swimming by watch ticking eyes of the shooter
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bierce prepares the reader for farquhar’s fantasy by using an intensely matter of fact tone and exact realistic in the opening. once farquhar \”closed his eyes,\” bierce employs magic realism (distortion of ordinary reality). give several examples of this. (for example he notices the sniper has a grey eye) (an occurrence at owl creek bridge)
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brain was on fire, tongue was swollen, couldn’t feel his feet, heart fluttering, eyes are congested and sticking out, his body swung like a pendulum, spun like a top, chest was pumping
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in farquhar’s fantasy (the account of what goes through his mind between time he falls to the end of the rope and the time the bones in his neck snap when he dies), find lines that reveal the actual physical aspect of the hanging. list several examples (for example, he is spinning like a top). (an occurrence at owl creek bridge)
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\”he was a federal scout\” scout that came to his house he was from north not south was tricked federal=northern soldier
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beirce’s skill in showing actions and feelings, rather than telling the reader about them is illustrated in at least three places. in each case, he uses a sentence which makes the reader feel a jolt comparable to farquhar’s being hanged. the first time is when he describes farquhar’s reaction to the unidentifiable sound which is revealed dramatically in a short sentence as \”his watch.\” likwise in part 2 is a short sentence which has a extremely dramatic impact upon the reader. what is it and what does it mean? (an occurrence at owl creek bridge)
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confirming that farquhar actually died snaps out of a dream
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more obvious is the instance in part 3 which jerks the reader back to reality with a decided shock of finality. \”he feels a stunning blow upon the back of the neck; a blinding white light blazes all about him with a sound like the shock of a cannon – then all is darkness and silence.\” why, then, is the final sentence in the story necessary? (an occurrence at owl creek bridge)
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1. Straighten limbs 2. Pin stockings together 3. Cross their hands over their heart 4. Close their eyes 5. Tie up jaws
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to lay out a corpse one must do what?
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walt whitman
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too old to fight didn’t want to fight he wanted to help his borther who was injured Women looking to be nurses he stayed and helped conditions were so bad he didn’t leave
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dorothea dix
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cared for six and wounded was a volunteer with no pay for four years, wounded and sick got better with her car Black or brown dresses, turn down if they were looking for love

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