Civics semester test study guide

Alabama
Montgomery
Delaware
Dover
Alaska
Juneau
Arizona
Phoenix
Arkansas
Little Rock
California
Sacremento
Colorado
Denver
Connecticut
Hartford
Florida
Tallahassee
Georgia
Atlanta
Hawaii
Honolulu
Idaho
Boise
Illinois
Springfield
Indiana
Indianapolis
Iowa
Des Moines
Kansas
Topeka
Kentucky
Frankfort
Louisiana
Baton Rouge
Maine
Augusta
Maryland
Annapolis
Massachusetts
Boston
Michigan
Lansing
Minnesota
Saint Paul
Mississippi
Jackson
Missouri
Jefferson City
Montana
Helena
Nebraska
Lincoln
Nevada
Carson City
New Hampshire
Concord
New Jersey
Trenton
New Mexico
Santa Fe
New York
Albany
North Carolina
Raleigh
North Dakota
Bismark
Ohio
Columbus
Oklahoma
Oklahoma City
Oregon
Salem
Pennsylvania
Harrisburg
Rhode Island
Providence
South Carolina
Columbia
South Dakota
Peirre
Tennessee
Nashville
Texas
Austin
Utah
Salt Lake City
Vermont
Montpeliar
Virginia
Richmond
Washington
Olympia
West Virginia
Charleston
Wisconsin
Madison
Wyoming
Cheyenne
Civics
the study of the rights and duties of citizens
Citizen
community members who owe loyalty to the government and are entitled to protection from it
Dictatorship
a government controlled by one person or a small group of people
Democracy
a government in which citizens hold the power to rule
Government
the ruling authority for a community
Direct Democracy
a form of democracy in which people vote firsthand
Representative Democracy
a government in which citizens choose a smaller group to govern on their behalf
Ammendment
any change to the constitution
Naturalization
a legal process to obtain citizenship
Alien
a non-citizen
Immigrant
a person who moves permanently to a new country
Deport
to send an alien or immigrant back to his or her country
Migration
a mass movement of people from one area to another
Patriotism
the love for ones country
Terrorism
the use of violence by groups of people against citizens to achieve a political goal
Constitution
a detailed written plan for a government
Bicameral
a legislature consisting of two parts, or houses
Ratify
to vote approval of
Legislative Branch
the lawmaking branch of government
Preamble
the opening section of the constitution
Bill of Rights
the first 10 ammendments of the constitution
Executive Branch
the branch of government that carries out laws
Judicial Branch
the branch of government that interprets laws
Income tax
a tax on peoples earnings
Electoral College
a group of people that elect the vice president and president
Rule of Law
principle that the law applys to everyone, even those who govern
Petition
a formal request for government action or a process by which candidates are not affiliated with one of the two major parties can get the ballot for general elections in each state
Slander
spoken untruths that can be harmful to someones reputation
Libel
written untruths that can be harmful to someones reputation
Seperation of Powers
the split authority between legislative, executive, and judicial branches
Suffrage
the right to vote
Checks and balances
a system in which each branch of government is able to check, or restrain, the power of the others
Responsibility
an obligation that we fulfill voluntarily
Duty
things we are required to do
Tolerance
respecting and respecting others, regardless of their beliefs, practices, or differences
Welfare
the health, prosperity and happiness of the members of a community
Volunteerism
the practice of offering your time and services to others without payment
Community
a group of people who share the interests and concerns
Census
a population count taken every 10 years by the census bereau
Constituent
a person from a legislatures district
Elastic Clause
gives congress the right to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out its expressed powers
Writ of Habeus Corpus
a court order that requires police to bring a prisoner to court to explain why they are holding the person
Filibuster
a tactic for beating a bill in the senate by talking it to death until the bills sponsor withdraws it
Veto
refusal to sign a bill or resolution
Pardon
a declaration of forgiveness and freedom from punishment
Amnesty
a pardon to a group of people
Jurisdiction
a courts authority to hear and decide cases
Precedent
a ruling that is used for the basis for a judicial decision in a later case
Judicial Review
review by the us supreme court of the constitutional validity of a legislative act
Political Party
an alliance of like-minded people who work together to win elections and control of the government