cis chapter 17

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7 phases of the systems development cycle
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planning, analysis, design, development, testing, implementation, and maintenance
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legacy systems
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an old system that is fast approaching or beyond the end of its useful life.
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conversion
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the process of transferring information from legacy system to a new system
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software customization
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modifies software to meet specific user or business requirements
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off the shelf application software
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supports general business process and does not require any specific software customization to meet the organizations needs
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systems development life cycle (SDLC)
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the overall process for developing information systems, from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance the foundation for all systems development methods and hundreds of different activities are associated with each phase.
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planning
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brainstorm issues and identify problems
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analysis
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gather the business requirement for the system, design the system models
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design
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design the technical architecture required to support the system
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development
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build the technical architecture, build the database, build the applications
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testing
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write the test conditions, perform system testing
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implementation
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write detailed user documents, provide training for users
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maintenance
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build a help desk to support system users
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planning phase
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establishes a high level plan of the intended project and determines goals
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(jad) joint application development
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session where employees meet sometimes for several days to define or review the requirements for a system
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(P1) change agent
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person or event that is the catalyst for implementing major changes for a system to meet business changes
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(P1) project mangement
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application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet requirements
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(P1) manager
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individual who is an expert in project planning
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(P1) scope
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the problem the project will solve
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(P1) plan
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formal document that manages the entire project
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analysis phase
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firm analyses its end user business requirements and refines goals into defined functions and operations
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(P2) business requirements
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are the specific business requests the system must meet to be successfull
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(P2) requirements definition document sign off
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consists of the users actual signatures indicating they approve
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(P2) modeling
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graphically representing the process
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(P2) data flow diagram
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illustrates the movement of info between external entities and the process and data stores within the system
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(P2) computer aided software engineering
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tools are software suites that automate systems analysis design and development
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design phase
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establishes descriptions of the desired features and operations of the system
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(P3) graphical user interface
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interface to an information system
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development phase
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takes all the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforms them into the actual system
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(P4) software engineering
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disciplines approach for constructing information systems through the use of common methods techniques or tools
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(P4) control objects for information and related technology
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set of best practices that helps an organization to maximize the benefits of an information system while at the same time establishing appropriate controls to ensure minimum errors.
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(P4) scripting language
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programming method that provides for interactive modules to a website
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(P4) object oriented languages
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group data and corresponding processes into objects
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(P4) fourth generation languages
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programming languages that look similar to human languages
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testing phase
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brings all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to eliminate errors and make sure it meets the requirements
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implementation phase
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the organization places the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations
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maintenance phase
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organization performs changes, corrects, additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet business goals
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corrective maintenance
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makes the system changes to repair design flaws, coding errors, or issues
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preventive maintenance
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makes system changes to reduce chance of future system failure
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parallel implementation
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uses legacy system and new system until all users verify that the new one functions correctly
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plunge implementation
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discards the legacy immediately and migrates all users to the new system
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pilot implementation
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assigns small group of people to use the new system until it is verified
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phased implementation
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installs the new system in phases
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unclear or missing requirements
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the most common reason systems fail is because the business requirements are either missing or incorrectly gathered during analysis
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skipping SDLC phases
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the first thing individuals tend to do when a project falls behind schedule is start skipping phases. this can lead to many issues
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failure to manage scope
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as project progresses the manager must track the status of each activity and adjust the plan if needed
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failure to manage project plan
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managing the project plan is one of the biggest challenges during the systems development. it is a road map for development and must be followed

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