CIS 3060 Essay

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Information
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It is the result of revealing the meaning of raw facts
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It is raw facts of interest to the end user
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End-user data
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It provides a description of the data characteristics and the set of relationships that link the data found within the database.
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Metadata
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It exists when different versions of the same data appear in different places
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Data inconsistency
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It is the response of the DBMS to a query
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query result set
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Data warehouse contains historical data obtained from the
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operational databases
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Data that exists in the format in which they were collected
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Unstructured Data
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Defined as the condition in which all of the data in the database are consistent with the real-world events and conditions
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Data integrity
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A term that refers to an organization of components that define and regulate the collection, storage, management and use of data within a database environment
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Database system
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End of Chapter One
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Next Chapter 2
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A brief, precise, and unambiguous description of a policy, procedure or principle in an organization
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Business rule
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Business rules are derived from a detailed description of an
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organization’s operations
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A noun in a business rule translates to an entity in the
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data model
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A verb associating two nouns in a business rule translates to
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relationship in the data model
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An entity represents
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a particular type of object in the real world.
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A model that was developed to allow designers to use a graphical tool to examine structures rather than describing them with text.
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entity relationship (diagram)
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An entity is
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anything about which data are to be collected and stored
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An attribute
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is the equivalent of a field in a file system
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A relationship
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is bi-directional ()
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Constraints
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are important because they help to ensure data integrity
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many-to-many
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Students and classes have a M:N relationship
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End of Ch 2. Quiz
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Next Chapter 3
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The logical view of the _____ database is facilitated by the creation of data relationships based on a logical construct
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relational
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attribute domain
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In a relational table, each column has a specific range of values known as
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In the relational model, _____ are important because they are used to ensure that each row in a table is uniquely identifiable.
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keys
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dependent
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Attribute A determines attribute B (that is, B is functionally DEPENDENT on A) if all of the rows in the table that agree in value for attribute A also agree in value for attribute B.
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A candidate key
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can be described as a superkey without unnecessary attributes
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If the foreign key contains either matching values or nulls, the table that makes use of that foreign key is said to exhibit
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referential integrity
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flags
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To avoid nulls, some designers use special codes, known as FLAGS, to indicate the absence of some value.
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The relational operators have the property of ______; that is, the use of relational algebra operators on existing relations (tables) produces new relations
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closure
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cartesian
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PRODUCT yields all possible pairs of rows from two tables—also known as the CARTESIAN product.
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join
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The JOIN is the real power behind the relational database, allowing the use of independent tables linked by common attributes
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equijoin
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A(n) EQUIJOIN links tables on the basis of an equality condition that compares specified columns of each table.
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outer join
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The OUTER joins are especially useful when you are trying to determine what value(s) in related tables cause(s) referential integrity problems
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data dictionary
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A DATA DICTIONARY provides a detailed description of all tables found within the user/designer-created database
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1:M
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The 1:M(one to many) relationship is the relational database norm
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1:1
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If one department chair—a professor—can chair only one department and one department can have only one department chair, then the entities PROFESSOR and DEPARTMENT exhibit a(n) 1:1 relationship
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M:N
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The M:N (many to many)relationships can be implemented by creating a new entity in 1:M relationships with the original entities.
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foreign
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The proper use of FOREIGN keys is crucial to controlling data redundancy
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index
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A(n) INDEX is an orderly arrangement used to logically access rows in a table.
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composite
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The index key can have multiple attributes, this is called a(n) COMPOSITE index
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Guaranteed Access
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Codd’s rule of GUARANTEED ACCESS states that every value in a table is guaranteed to be accessible through a combination of table name, primary key value, and column name
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End of Ch 3
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Next Ch. 4
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The Chen model is especially useful to illustrate the database from a(n) ____ perspective.
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conceptual
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Successful database design is, first and foremost, based on ____ requirements.
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end-user
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A derived attribute ____
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need not be physically stored within the database
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Cardinality expresses ____ number of entity occurrences associated with one occurrence of the related entity
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the specific
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A ____ attribute can be further subdivided to yield additional attributes
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composite
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If an entity can exist apart from one or more related entities, it is said to be ____-independent
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existence
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A ____ relationship exists when two entities are associated
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binary
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The set of possible values for an attribute is a ____
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domain
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What type of attribute cannot be created in a DBMS?
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multivalued
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A relationship name should be a(n) ____
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verb
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End of Ch. 4
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Next Ch. 6
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From a structural point of view, 2NF is better than this_____
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1NF
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It produces a lower normal form
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denormalization
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It causes data redundancies of data on every row entry
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duplication
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Any attribute whose value determines other values within a row
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determinant
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A process to help reduce the likelihood of data anomalies
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normalization
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It derives its name from the fact that a group of multiple entries of the same type can exist for any single key attribute occurrence
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repeating group
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Any attribute that is at least part of a key
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prime attribute
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A diagram that depicts all dependencies found within a given table structure
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dependency diagram
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A dependency based on only a part of a composite primary key
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partial dependency
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Refers to the level of detail represented by the values stored in a table’s row
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granularity
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True and false
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Start
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Relational models view the data as part of a table or collection of tables in which all key values must be identified
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True
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Repeating groups must be eliminated by making sure that each row defines a single entity
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True
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Converting a database format from 1NF to 2NF is a complex process
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False
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A table is in 2NF if it is in 1NF and it includes no partial dependencies
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True
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It is possible for a table in 2NF to exhibit transitive dependency, where one or more attributes may be functionally dependent on non-key attributes?
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True
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Denormalization is a process for assigning attributes to entities
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False
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Dependencies that are based on only a part of a composite primary key are called transitive dependencies
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False
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Repeating groups must be eliminated by making sure that each column defines a single entity
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False
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All relational tables satisfy the 1NF requirements
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True
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Atomic attributes are attributes that can be further divided
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False

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