Chpt 11 Endocrine

acr/o
extremities
adren/o
adrenal gland
adrenal/o
adrenal gland
andr/o
male
calc/o
calcium
crin/o
secrete
estr/o
female
glyc/o
sugar
glycos/o
sugar
gonad/o
sex glands
home/o
sameness
kal/i
potassium
natr/o
sodium
ophthalm/o
eye
pancreat/o
pancreas
parathyroid/o
parathyroid gland
pineal/o
pineal gland
pituitar/o
pituitary gland
thym/o
thymus gland
thyr/o
thyroid gland
thyroid/o
thyroid gland
toxic/o
poison
-crine
to secrete
-dipsia
thirst
-prandial
relating to a meal
-tropin
stimulate
cortisol
regulates carbohydrate levels in the body
aldosterone
regulates electrolytes and fluid volume in the body
androgen, estrogen, progesteron
responsible for reproduction and secondary sexual characteristics
epinephrine (adrenaline)
intensifies response during stress; “fight or flight” response
norepinephrine
chiefly a vasoconstrictor
estrogen
stimulates development of secondary sex characteristics in females; regulates menstrual cycle
progesterone
prepares for conditions of pregnancy
glucagon
stimulates liver to release glucose into the blood
insulin
regulates and promotes entry of glucose into cells
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
stimulates bone breakdown; regulates calcium level in the blood
adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)
regulates function of adrenal cortex
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
stimulates growth of eggs in female and sperm in males
growth hormone (GH)
stimulates growth of the body
luteinizing hormone (LH)
regulates function of male and female gonads and plays a role in releasing ova in females
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
stimulates pigment in skin
prolactin
stimulates milk production
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
regulates function of thyroid gland
antiduretic hormone (ADH)
stimulates reabsorption of water by the kidneys
oxygen
stimulates uterine contractions and releases milk into ducts
testosterone
promotes sperm production and development of secondary sex characteristics in males
thymosin
promotes development of cells in immune system
calcitonin
stimulates deposition of calcium into bone
thyroxine
stimulates metabolism in cells
triiodothyronine
stimulates metabolism in cells
acidosis
excessive acidity of body fluids due to the accumulation of acids
edema
condition in which the body tissues contain excessive amounts of fluid
endocrinology
branch of medicine involving diagnosis and treatment of conditions and diseases of endocrine glands
exophthalmos
condition in which the eyeballs protrude; such as in graves’ disease. caused by an overproduction of thyroid hormone
gynecomastia
development of breast tissue in males
hirsutism
condition of having an excess amount of hair. females with an adult male pattern of hair growth – hormonal imbalance
hypersecretion
excessive hormone production by an endocrine gland
hyposecretion
deficient hormone production by an endocrine gland
obesity
having an abnormal amount of fat in the body
syndrome
group of symptoms and signs that when combined present a clinical picture of a disease or condition
addison’s disease
disease named for british physician thomas addison that results from a deficiency in adrenocortical hormones
adrenal feminization
development of female secondary sexual characteristics (such as breasts) in a male
adrenal virilism
development of male secondary sexual characteristics (such as deeper voice) in a female
cushing’s syndrome
set of symptoms named after US neurosurgeon harvey cushing that result from hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex
pheochromocytoma
usually benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that secretes epinephrine
diabetes melltius (DM)
chronic disorder of carbohydrates metabolism that results in hyperglycemia and glycosuria
diabetic retinopathy
secondary complication of diabetes that affects the blood vessels of the retina – results in visual change and even blindness
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
type 1 diabetes. it develops early in life when the pancreas stops insulin production
insulinoma
tumor of the islets of langerhans cells of the pancreas that secretes an excessive amount of insulin
ketoacidosis
acidosis due to an excess of acidic ketone bodies. can result in death – diabetic acidosis
non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
type 2 diabetes. develops late in life. the pancreas produces normal to high levels of insulin but the cells fail to respond to it
peripheral neuropathy
damage to the nerves in the lower legs and hands as a result of diabetes mellitus
tetany
nerve irritability and painful muscle cramps resulting from hypocalcemia
recklinghausen disease
excessive production of parathyroid hormone which results in degeneration of the bones
acromegaly
chronic disease of adults that results in an elongation and enlargement of the bones of the head and extremities
diabetes insipidus (DI)
disorder caused by the inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
dwarfism
condition of being abnormally short in height
gigantism
excessive development of the body due to the overproduction of the growth hormone by the pituitary gland in a child or teenager
panhypopituitarism
deficiency in all the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland
crentinism
congenital condition in which lack of thyroid hormones may result in arrested physical and mental development
goiter
enlargment of the thyroid gland
graves’ disease
overactivity of the thyroid gland and can cause a crisis situation
hashimoto’s disease
chronic autoimmune form of thyroiditis, results in hyposecretion of thyroid hormones
myxedema
condition resulting from a hyposecretion of the thyroid gland in an adult
thyrotoxicosis
condition resulting from marked overproduction of the thyroid gland
adenocarcinoma
cancerous tumor in a gland that is capable of producing the hormones secreted by that gland
blood serum test
blood test to measure the level of substances such as calcium, electrolytes, testosterone, insulin, and glucose. – determine function of various endocrine glands
fasting blood sugar (FBS)
blood test to measure the amount of sugar circulating throughout the body after a 12hr fast
glucose tolerance test (GTT)
test to determine the blood sugar level
protein-bound iodine test (PBI)
blood test to measure the concentration of thyroxine circulating in the bloodstream
radioimmunoassay (RIA)
test used to measure the levels of hormones in the plasma of the blood
thyroid function test (TFT)
blood test used to measure the levels of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the bloodstream to assist in determining thyroid function
total calcium
blood test to measure the total amount of calcium to assist in detecting parathyroid and bone disorders
two-hr postprandial glucose tolerance test
blood test to assist in evaluating glucose metabolism
thyroid echogram
ultrasound exam of the thyroid that can assist in distinguishing a thyroid nodule from a cyst
thyroid scan
test in which radioactive iodine is administered that localizes in the thyroid gland
chemical thyroidectomy
large dose of radioactive iodine is given in order to kill thyroid gland cells without having to actually do surgery
hormone replacement therapy
artificial replacement of hormones in patients with hyposecretion disorders
laparoscopic adrenalectomy
removal of the adrenal gland through a small incision in the abdomen and using endoscopic instruments
lobectomy
removal of a lobe from an organ
antithyroid angents
medication given to block production of thyroid hormones in patients with hypersecretion disorders (tapazole)
corticosteroids
anti-inflammatory action (prednisone,deltasone)
human growth hormone therapy
hormone replacement therapy with human growth hormone in order to stimulate skeletal growth – treat children with abnormally short stature (genotropin, protropin)
insulin
replace insulin for type 1 diabetics or to treat severe type 2 diabetics (human insulin)
oral hypoglycemic agents
medications taken by mouth that cause a decrease in blood sugar – not for insulin dependent (metformin, glucophage)
thyroid replacement hormone
hormone replacement therapy for patients with hypothyroidism or who have had a thyroidectomy (levo-t, cytomel)
vasopressin
given to control diabetes insipidus and promote reabsorption of water in the kidney tubules (vaprisol; desmopressin)
adrenalectomy
removal of adrenal glands
adrenalitis
inflammation of an adrenal gland
hypercalcemia
excessive calcium in the blood
hypocalcemia
low calcium in the blood
endocrinologist
specialist in the endocrine system
endocrinopathy
endocrine system disease
hyperglycemia
excessive sugar in the blood
hypoglycemia
low sugar in the blood
hyperkalemia
excessive potassium in the blood
hyponatremia
low sodium in the blood
pancreatic
pertaining to the pancreas
parathyroidal
pertaining to the parathyroid gland
parathyroidectomy
removal of the parathyroid gland
hyperparathyroidism
state of excessive parathyroid
hypoparathyroidism
state of insufficient parathyroid
pituitary
pertaining to the pituitary gland
hypopituitarism
state of insufficient pituitary
hyperpituitarism
state of excessive pituitary
thymic
pertaining to the thymus gland
thymectomy
removal of the thymus
thymitis
thymus inflammation
thymoma
thymus tumor
thyromegaly
enlarged thyroid
thyroidal
pertaining to the thyroid
thyroidectomy
removal of the thyroid
hyperthyroidism
state of excessive thyroid
hypothyroidism
state of insufficient thyroid
polydipsia
many (excessive) thirst
polyuria
condition of (too) much urine
glycosuria
sugar in the urine
the study of the endocrine system is called ____
endocrinology
the master endocrine gland is the ____
pituitary
___ is a general term for the sexual organs that produce gametes
gonads
the term for the hormones produced by the outer portion of the adrenal cortex is ____
corticosteriods
the hormone produced by the testes is ____
testosterone
the two hormones produced by the ovaries are _____ and _____
estrogen; progesterone
an inadequate supply of the hormone ____ causes diabetes insipidus
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
the endocrine gland associated with the immune system is ____
thymus gland
the term for a protrusion of the eyeballs in graves’ disease is ____
exophthalmos
a general medical term for a hormone-secreting cancerous tumor is ______
adenocarcinoma
cushings disease
overactive adrenal cortex
goiter
enlarged thyroid
acidosis
associated with diabetes
gigantism
excessive growth hormone
cretinism
arrested growth
myxedema
enlarged facial features and edematous skin
diabetes mellitus
poor carbohydrate metabolism
diabetes insipidus
causes polyuria and polydipsia
hashimoto’s disease
thyroiditis
graves’ disease
hyperthyroidism
addison’s disease
underactive adrenal cortex
protein bound iodine test
measures T4 concentration in the blood
fasting blood sugar
measures blood sugar level after 12hr fast
radioimmunoassay
measures levels of hormones in the blood
thyroid scan
uses radioactive iodine
2hr postprandial glucose
test of glucose metabolism 2hrs after eating a meal
glucose tolerance test
determines glucose metabolism after patient receives a measure dose of glucose
strong anti-inflammatory
deltasone
stimulates skeletal growth
genotropin
treats type II diabetes mellitus
glucophage
blocks production of thyroid hormone
tapazole
treats type I diabetes mellitus
humulin L
controls diabetes insipidus
desmopressin