Chpt 11 Endocrine

acr/o
extremities

adren/o
adrenal gland

adrenal/o
adrenal gland

andr/o
male

calc/o
calcium

crin/o
secrete

estr/o
female

glyc/o
sugar

glycos/o
sugar

gonad/o
sex glands

home/o
sameness

kal/i
potassium

natr/o
sodium

ophthalm/o
eye

pancreat/o
pancreas

parathyroid/o
parathyroid gland

pineal/o
pineal gland

pituitar/o
pituitary gland

thym/o
thymus gland

thyr/o
thyroid gland

thyroid/o
thyroid gland

toxic/o
poison

-crine
to secrete

-dipsia
thirst

-prandial
relating to a meal

-tropin
stimulate

cortisol
regulates carbohydrate levels in the body

aldosterone
regulates electrolytes and fluid volume in the body

androgen, estrogen, progesteron
responsible for reproduction and secondary sexual characteristics

epinephrine (adrenaline)
intensifies response during stress; “fight or flight” response

norepinephrine
chiefly a vasoconstrictor

estrogen
stimulates development of secondary sex characteristics in females; regulates menstrual cycle

progesterone
prepares for conditions of pregnancy

glucagon
stimulates liver to release glucose into the blood

insulin
regulates and promotes entry of glucose into cells

parathyroid hormone (PTH)
stimulates bone breakdown; regulates calcium level in the blood

adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)
regulates function of adrenal cortex

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
stimulates growth of eggs in female and sperm in males

growth hormone (GH)
stimulates growth of the body

luteinizing hormone (LH)
regulates function of male and female gonads and plays a role in releasing ova in females

melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
stimulates pigment in skin

prolactin
stimulates milk production

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
regulates function of thyroid gland

antiduretic hormone (ADH)
stimulates reabsorption of water by the kidneys

oxygen
stimulates uterine contractions and releases milk into ducts

testosterone
promotes sperm production and development of secondary sex characteristics in males

thymosin
promotes development of cells in immune system

calcitonin
stimulates deposition of calcium into bone

thyroxine
stimulates metabolism in cells

triiodothyronine
stimulates metabolism in cells

acidosis
excessive acidity of body fluids due to the accumulation of acids

edema
condition in which the body tissues contain excessive amounts of fluid

endocrinology
branch of medicine involving diagnosis and treatment of conditions and diseases of endocrine glands

exophthalmos
condition in which the eyeballs protrude; such as in graves’ disease. caused by an overproduction of thyroid hormone

gynecomastia
development of breast tissue in males

hirsutism
condition of having an excess amount of hair. females with an adult male pattern of hair growth – hormonal imbalance

hypersecretion
excessive hormone production by an endocrine gland

hyposecretion
deficient hormone production by an endocrine gland

obesity
having an abnormal amount of fat in the body

syndrome
group of symptoms and signs that when combined present a clinical picture of a disease or condition

addison’s disease
disease named for british physician thomas addison that results from a deficiency in adrenocortical hormones

adrenal feminization
development of female secondary sexual characteristics (such as breasts) in a male

adrenal virilism
development of male secondary sexual characteristics (such as deeper voice) in a female

cushing’s syndrome
set of symptoms named after US neurosurgeon harvey cushing that result from hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex

pheochromocytoma
usually benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that secretes epinephrine

diabetes melltius (DM)
chronic disorder of carbohydrates metabolism that results in hyperglycemia and glycosuria

diabetic retinopathy
secondary complication of diabetes that affects the blood vessels of the retina – results in visual change and even blindness

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
type 1 diabetes. it develops early in life when the pancreas stops insulin production

insulinoma
tumor of the islets of langerhans cells of the pancreas that secretes an excessive amount of insulin

ketoacidosis
acidosis due to an excess of acidic ketone bodies. can result in death – diabetic acidosis

non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
type 2 diabetes. develops late in life. the pancreas produces normal to high levels of insulin but the cells fail to respond to it

peripheral neuropathy
damage to the nerves in the lower legs and hands as a result of diabetes mellitus

tetany
nerve irritability and painful muscle cramps resulting from hypocalcemia

recklinghausen disease
excessive production of parathyroid hormone which results in degeneration of the bones

acromegaly
chronic disease of adults that results in an elongation and enlargement of the bones of the head and extremities

diabetes insipidus (DI)
disorder caused by the inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland

dwarfism
condition of being abnormally short in height

gigantism
excessive development of the body due to the overproduction of the growth hormone by the pituitary gland in a child or teenager

panhypopituitarism
deficiency in all the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland

crentinism
congenital condition in which lack of thyroid hormones may result in arrested physical and mental development

goiter
enlargment of the thyroid gland

graves’ disease
overactivity of the thyroid gland and can cause a crisis situation

hashimoto’s disease
chronic autoimmune form of thyroiditis, results in hyposecretion of thyroid hormones

myxedema
condition resulting from a hyposecretion of the thyroid gland in an adult

thyrotoxicosis
condition resulting from marked overproduction of the thyroid gland

adenocarcinoma
cancerous tumor in a gland that is capable of producing the hormones secreted by that gland

blood serum test
blood test to measure the level of substances such as calcium, electrolytes, testosterone, insulin, and glucose. – determine function of various endocrine glands

fasting blood sugar (FBS)
blood test to measure the amount of sugar circulating throughout the body after a 12hr fast

glucose tolerance test (GTT)
test to determine the blood sugar level

protein-bound iodine test (PBI)
blood test to measure the concentration of thyroxine circulating in the bloodstream

radioimmunoassay (RIA)
test used to measure the levels of hormones in the plasma of the blood

thyroid function test (TFT)
blood test used to measure the levels of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the bloodstream to assist in determining thyroid function

total calcium
blood test to measure the total amount of calcium to assist in detecting parathyroid and bone disorders

two-hr postprandial glucose tolerance test
blood test to assist in evaluating glucose metabolism

thyroid echogram
ultrasound exam of the thyroid that can assist in distinguishing a thyroid nodule from a cyst

thyroid scan
test in which radioactive iodine is administered that localizes in the thyroid gland

chemical thyroidectomy
large dose of radioactive iodine is given in order to kill thyroid gland cells without having to actually do surgery

hormone replacement therapy
artificial replacement of hormones in patients with hyposecretion disorders

laparoscopic adrenalectomy
removal of the adrenal gland through a small incision in the abdomen and using endoscopic instruments

lobectomy
removal of a lobe from an organ

antithyroid angents
medication given to block production of thyroid hormones in patients with hypersecretion disorders (tapazole)

corticosteroids
anti-inflammatory action (prednisone,deltasone)

human growth hormone therapy
hormone replacement therapy with human growth hormone in order to stimulate skeletal growth – treat children with abnormally short stature (genotropin, protropin)

insulin
replace insulin for type 1 diabetics or to treat severe type 2 diabetics (human insulin)

oral hypoglycemic agents
medications taken by mouth that cause a decrease in blood sugar – not for insulin dependent (metformin, glucophage)

thyroid replacement hormone
hormone replacement therapy for patients with hypothyroidism or who have had a thyroidectomy (levo-t, cytomel)

vasopressin
given to control diabetes insipidus and promote reabsorption of water in the kidney tubules (vaprisol; desmopressin)

adrenalectomy
removal of adrenal glands

adrenalitis
inflammation of an adrenal gland

hypercalcemia
excessive calcium in the blood

hypocalcemia
low calcium in the blood

endocrinologist
specialist in the endocrine system

endocrinopathy
endocrine system disease

hyperglycemia
excessive sugar in the blood

hypoglycemia
low sugar in the blood

hyperkalemia
excessive potassium in the blood

hyponatremia
low sodium in the blood

pancreatic
pertaining to the pancreas

parathyroidal
pertaining to the parathyroid gland

parathyroidectomy
removal of the parathyroid gland

hyperparathyroidism
state of excessive parathyroid

hypoparathyroidism
state of insufficient parathyroid

pituitary
pertaining to the pituitary gland

hypopituitarism
state of insufficient pituitary

hyperpituitarism
state of excessive pituitary

thymic
pertaining to the thymus gland

thymectomy
removal of the thymus

thymitis
thymus inflammation

thymoma
thymus tumor

thyromegaly
enlarged thyroid

thyroidal
pertaining to the thyroid

thyroidectomy
removal of the thyroid

hyperthyroidism
state of excessive thyroid

hypothyroidism
state of insufficient thyroid

polydipsia
many (excessive) thirst

polyuria
condition of (too) much urine

glycosuria
sugar in the urine

the study of the endocrine system is called ____
endocrinology

the master endocrine gland is the ____
pituitary

___ is a general term for the sexual organs that produce gametes
gonads

the term for the hormones produced by the outer portion of the adrenal cortex is ____
corticosteriods

the hormone produced by the testes is ____
testosterone

the two hormones produced by the ovaries are _____ and _____
estrogen; progesterone

an inadequate supply of the hormone ____ causes diabetes insipidus
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

the endocrine gland associated with the immune system is ____
thymus gland

the term for a protrusion of the eyeballs in graves’ disease is ____
exophthalmos

a general medical term for a hormone-secreting cancerous tumor is ______
adenocarcinoma

cushings disease
overactive adrenal cortex

goiter
enlarged thyroid

acidosis
associated with diabetes

gigantism
excessive growth hormone

cretinism
arrested growth

myxedema
enlarged facial features and edematous skin

diabetes mellitus
poor carbohydrate metabolism

diabetes insipidus
causes polyuria and polydipsia

hashimoto’s disease
thyroiditis

graves’ disease
hyperthyroidism

addison’s disease
underactive adrenal cortex

protein bound iodine test
measures T4 concentration in the blood

fasting blood sugar
measures blood sugar level after 12hr fast

radioimmunoassay
measures levels of hormones in the blood

thyroid scan
uses radioactive iodine

2hr postprandial glucose
test of glucose metabolism 2hrs after eating a meal

glucose tolerance test
determines glucose metabolism after patient receives a measure dose of glucose

strong anti-inflammatory
deltasone

stimulates skeletal growth
genotropin

treats type II diabetes mellitus
glucophage

blocks production of thyroid hormone
tapazole

treats type I diabetes mellitus
humulin L

controls diabetes insipidus
desmopressin