child development vocab (study guide – final)

Nurture
The general term used to refer to all the environmental influences that affect development after an individual is conceived.

Nature
The general term used to refer to the traits, capacities, and limitations that each individual inherits genetically from his or her parents.

Cognitive Theory
A grand theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time.

Behaviorism
A grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior.

Gamete
A reproductive cell; that is, a sperm or ovum that can produce a new individual if it combines with another ovum or sperm.

Zygote
The single cell formed from the fusing of a sperm and ovum

Germinal Period
The first two weeks of development after conception, characterized by rapid cell division and the beginning of cell differentiation

Fetal Period
The stage of prenatal development from the ninth week after conception until birth, during which the organs of the developing person grow in size and mature in functioning

Holophrase
The characteristic of infant’s speech in which a single word is used to convey a complete thought.

Sensation
The response of a sensory system (eyes, ears, skin, tongue, nose) when it detects a stimulus.

Secure Attachment
The term used to refer to an infant’s ability to play independently and happily, reassured by the caregiver’s presence.

Insecure-resistant/ambivalent
The term used to refer to an infant’s distress when separated from a caregiver and resistance or need for contact when that person returns.

Temperament
Inborn differences between one person and another in emotions, activity, and self-control.

Social Refrencing
Observation of someone else’s reactions to get information about an unfamiliar or ambiguous object or event.

Babbling
The extended repetition of certain syllables, such as ba-ba-ba, that begins at 6 or 7 months of age.

Perception
The mental processing of sensory information.

Crying, cooing, babbling, first word
is the correct sequence of stages of language in language development.

Object Permanence
is a term that describes a child’s ability to know that objects continue to exist though they can no longer be seen or heard.

Example of Fine motor skills
coloring, drawing

Age 1
is average age a child can walk unassisted

Vision
is the LEAST developed sense at birth.

Head-sparing
the biological protection of the brain when malnutrition temporarily affects body growth.

Anoxia
lack of oxygen

The Apgar
is used to determine if the newborn needs immediate medical care

The “age of viability”
refers to the point when the preterm newborn can survive.

The Cardiovascular system
is the first organ system that shows any sign of activity.

Monozygotic Twins
originates from one zygote.

The 23rd pair of Chromosomes
determines a person’s sex.

Phenotype
is the observable characteristics of a person.

DNA
the molecular basis of heredity constructed of a double helix.

Epigenetic theory
is described as, development occurs because of an interaction between inherited and environmental forces.

Sigmund Freud and Erik Erickson are best known for their contributions to which theory?
Psychoanalytic

Chromosomes
are inherited half from the mother and half from the father.

The study of human development is often divided into which three domains?
biosocial, cognitive, and psychosocial

The study of human development may best be described as an attempt to understand which of the following?
How and why people change and stay the same across the lifespan.

Phenotype
is the observable characteristics of a person.

Secure Attachment

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