Child Development Study Guide Chapter 1

caregivers
parent and others who tend to children

typical behaviors
ways of acting or responding that are common at each stage of childhood

stimulation
activities that arouse a baby’s sense of sight, sound, touch, tast, and smell

sequence
a step-by-step pattern

heredity
the biological transfer of certain inherited characteristics from earlier generations

environment
people, places, and thang that surround and influence a person

human life cycle
stages in life from birth to death

developmental task
challenges that must be met or skills to be acquired in each stage of development

self-esteem
self-worth, or the value of people place on themselves

subjective
observation relies on personal opinions and feelings, rather than facts

object
observation relies on recorded factual information leaves aside personal feelings

running record
a method of writing observations in which the observer writes down everything observed about a child or group for a set period of time

anecdotal record
an observer’s reports of a child’s actions, usually concentrating on a specific behabor or area of development

frequency count
a tally of hw often a certain behavior occurs

baselinge
a count of behaviors an observer makes before any steps are taken to try to change the behavior

developmental checklist
challenges that must be met or skells to be acquired during different stages of life

interpretation
in observing children, the analysis an observer forms and expresses about what was observed

confidentiality
protection of another person’s privacy by limitying access to personal information

Sigmund Freud
childhood is much more important than previously thought, and its effects are longer lasting

Jean Piaget
children must be given learnig tasks appropriate to their level of development

Lev Vygotsky
children should be given theopportunity for frequent social interaction

Erik Erikson
parents and other caregivers must be aware of , and senstitive to, children’s needs at each stage of development and support them trough crises

B.F. Skinner
parents and other caregivers can affect a child’s behavior through the use of negative and positive feedback

Albert Bandura
behavior is learned form the environment thought