Child Development Study Guide Chapter 1

caregivers
parent and others who tend to children
typical behaviors
ways of acting or responding that are common at each stage of childhood
stimulation
activities that arouse a baby’s sense of sight, sound, touch, tast, and smell
sequence
a step-by-step pattern
heredity
the biological transfer of certain inherited characteristics from earlier generations
environment
people, places, and thang that surround and influence a person
human life cycle
stages in life from birth to death
developmental task
challenges that must be met or skills to be acquired in each stage of development
self-esteem
self-worth, or the value of people place on themselves
subjective
observation relies on personal opinions and feelings, rather than facts
object
observation relies on recorded factual information leaves aside personal feelings
running record
a method of writing observations in which the observer writes down everything observed about a child or group for a set period of time
anecdotal record
an observer’s reports of a child’s actions, usually concentrating on a specific behabor or area of development
frequency count
a tally of hw often a certain behavior occurs
baselinge
a count of behaviors an observer makes before any steps are taken to try to change the behavior
developmental checklist
challenges that must be met or skells to be acquired during different stages of life
interpretation
in observing children, the analysis an observer forms and expresses about what was observed
confidentiality
protection of another person’s privacy by limitying access to personal information
Sigmund Freud
childhood is much more important than previously thought, and its effects are longer lasting
Jean Piaget
children must be given learnig tasks appropriate to their level of development
Lev Vygotsky
children should be given theopportunity for frequent social interaction
Erik Erikson
parents and other caregivers must be aware of , and senstitive to, children’s needs at each stage of development and support them trough crises
B.F. Skinner
parents and other caregivers can affect a child’s behavior through the use of negative and positive feedback
Albert Bandura
behavior is learned form the environment thought