Chemistry Semester 2 Final Study Guide

Monatomic Ion
Ions formed from a single atom.

Binary Compound
Compounds composed of two elements.

Naming system.

An ionic compound composed of a cation and the anion from an anion from an acid.

Oxidation Numbers/Oxidation States
In order to indicate the general distribution of electrons among the bonded atoms in a molecular compound or a poly atomic ion; assigned to the atoms composing the compound or ion.

Formula Mass
The sum of the average atomic masses of all atoms represented in its formula.

Percentage Composition
The percentage by mass of each element in a compound; mass of elements in 1 mol of compound/molar mass of compound x 100 = % element in compound.

Chemical Equation
Represents, with symbols and formulas, the identities and relative molecular or molar amounts of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction.

Physical Indicators of a Chemical Reaction
-Evolution of energy as hear and light.
-Color change.
-Production of a gas.
– Formation of a precipitate.

A solid that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction in solution and that separates from the solution.

A small whole number that appears in front of a formula in a chemical equation.

Word Equation
An equation in which the reactants and products in a chemical reaction are presented by words.

Formula Equation
Represents the reactants and products of a chemical reaction by their symbols or formulas.

Reversible Reaction
A chemical reaction in which the products re-form the original reactants.

Synthesis Reaction
A composition reaction, two or more substances combine to form a new compound; produces oxides.
A+X -> AX

Decomposition Reaction
A single compound that undergoes a reaction that produces two or more simpler substances; simplest type is of binary compounds.
AX -> A+X

The decomposition of a substance by an electric current.

Single-Displacement Reaction
Replacement reaction, one element replaces a similar element in a compound.
A+BX -> AX +B

Double-Displacement Reaction
Ions of two compounds exchange places in an aqueous solution to form two new compounds.
AX + BY -> AY +BX

Combustion Reaction
A substance combined with oxygen, releasing a large amount of energy in the form of light and heat.

Composition Stoichiometry
Deals with the mass relationship of elements in compounds.

Reaction Stoichiometry
Involves the mass relationships between reactants and products in a chemical reaction.

Mole ratio
A conversion factor that relates the amounts in moles of any two substances involved in a chemical reaction.

Limiting Reactant
The reactants that limits the amount of the other reactant that can combine and the amount of product that can form in a chemical reaction.

Excess Reactant
The substance that is not used up completely in a reaction.

Theoretical Yield
The maximum amount of product that can be product that can be produced from a given amount of a reactant.

Actual Yield
The measured amount of a product obtained from a reaction.

Percentage Yield
The ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield multiplied by 100.

Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Based on the ideas that particles of matter are always in motion; can be used to explain the properties of solids, liquids, and gases in terms of the energy of particles and the forces that act between them; assumptions: gases consist of large numbers of tiny particles that are far apart relative to their size; collisions between gas particles and between particles and container walls are elastic collisions, gas particles are in common, rapid, random motion. They therefore possess kinetic energy which is energy of motion; there are no forces of attraction between gas particles; the temperature of a gas depends on the average kinetic energy of the particles of the gas; explain physical properties of gases: gases do not have a definite shape or volume, gases have fluidity, gases have low density, gases diffuse and effuse.

Ideal gas
Hypothetical gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory.

Elastic Collision
One in which there is no net loss of total kinetic energy.

Such spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substances caused by their random motion.

The process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening.

Real Gas
A gas that does not behave completely according to the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory.

A substance that can flow and therefore take the shape of its container.

Have a relatively high density, relatively incompressible, able to diffuse, have surface tension.

Surface Tension
Force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid’s surface together, thereby decreasing surface area to the smallest possible size.

Capillary Action
The attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a solid, is a property closely related to surface tension.

The process by which a liquid or solid changes to a gas.

The process by which particles escape from the surface of a non boiling liquid and enter the gas state.

Crystalline Solids
Consist of crystals; geometrically regular.

A substance in which the particles are arranged in an a orderly, geometric, repeating pattern.

Amorphous Solid
One in which the particles are arranged randomly; maintain a definite shape.

The physical change of a solid to a liquid by the addition of a energy as heat.

Melting Point
The temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid.

Supercooled Liquid
Substances that retain certain liquid properties even at temperatures at which they appear to be solid.

Crystal Structure
The total three-dimensional arrangement of particles of a crystal.

Unit Cell
The smallest portion of a crystal lattice that shows the three-dimensions pattern of the entire lattice.

Ionic Crystals
Consist of positive and negative ions arranged in a regular pattern, the ions can be monatomic or polyatomic.

Covalent Network Crystals
Each atom is covalent key bonded to its nearest neighboring atoms,

Metallic Crystals
Consists of metal cations surrounded by a sea of delocalized valence electrons.

Covalent Molecular Crystals
Consist of covalently bonded molecules held together by intermolecular forces, easily vaporized, relatively soft, good insulators.

Any part of a system that has uniform composition and properties.

The process by which a gas changes to a liquid.

A dynamic condition in which two opposing changes occur at equal rates in a closed system.

Equilibrium Vapor Pressure
The pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its corresponding liquid at a given temperature.

Volatile Liquids
Liquids that evaporate readily, have relatively weak forces of attraction between their particles.

The conversion of a liquid to a vapor within the liquid as well as at its surface.

Boiling Point
The temperature at which the equilibrium vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure.

Molar Enthalpy of Vaporization
The amount of energy as heat that is needed to vaporize one mole of liquid at the liquid’s boiling point at constant pressure.

The physical change of a liquid to a solid.

Freezing Point
The temperature at which the solid and liquid are in equilibrium at 1 atm pressure.

Molar Enthalpy of Fusion
The amount of energy as heat required to melt one mole of solid at the solid’s melting point.

The change of state from a solid directly to a gas.

The change of state from a gas directly to a solid.

Phase Diagram
A graph of pressure virus temperature that shows the conditions under which the phases of a substance exist; also reveals how the states of a system change with changing temperature or pressure.

Triple Point
Indicates the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and vapor of the substances can coexist at equilibrium.

The force that will increase the speed of one-kilogram mass by one meter per second each second that the force is applied.

Critical point
Indicates the critical temperature and critical pressure.

Critical temperature
The temperature above which the substance cannot exist in the liquid state,

Critical pressure
The lowest pressure at which the substance can exist as a liquid at the critical temperature.

Defined as the force per unit area on a surface.

A device used to measure atmospheric pressure.

Device used to measure the pressure of an enclosed gas sample.

Partial Pressure e
The pressure of each gas in a mixture.

Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
States that the total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases.
P(t)= P1+P2+P3

Boyle’s Law
States that the volume of a fixed mass of gas varies inversely with the pressure at constant temperature.

Absolute Zero
273.15 C, zero on the Kelvin scale

Charle’s Law
States that the volume of a fixed mass of. A gas at constant pressure varies directly with the temperature in Kelvin.
V1/T1= V2/T2

Gay-Lussac’s Law
The pressure of a fixed mass of a gas at constant volume varies directly with the temperature in Kelvin.

Combined Gas Law
Expresses the relationship between pressure, volume, and temperature of a fixed amount of gas.
P1V1/T1= P2V2/T2

Gay-Lussac’s Law of Combining Volumes of Gases
Scientist summarized the results of his experiments by stating that at constant temperature and pressure, the volumes of gaseous reactants and products can be expressed as ratios of small whole numbers.

Avogrado’s Law
States that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules.

Standard Molar Volume of a Gas
The volume occupied by one mole of gas at STP. 22.41410 L

Ideal Gas Law
The mathematical relationship among pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of moles of a gas.

Ideal Gas Constant
In the equation representing the ideal gas law, the constant R.

Properties of an Acid
-Aqueous solutions of acids have a sour taste. Taste, however, should never be should as a test to evaluate any chemical substance.
-Acids change the color of acid-base indicators.
-Some acids react with bases to produce salts and water.
-Acids conduct electric currents.

Binary Acid
An acid that contains only two different elements: hydrogen and one of the more electronegative elements.

Binary Acid Nomenclature
1. The name of the binary acid begins with the prefix hydro-.
2. The root of the name of the second follows this prefix.
3. The name then ends with the suffix -ic.

An avid that is s compound of hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element, usually a nonmetal.

Properties of Bases
-Aqueous solutions of bases taste bitter. Many bases are caustic; they attack the skin and tissues, causing severe burns.
-Bases change color of acid-base indicators.
-Dilute aqueous solutions of bases feel slippery.
-Bases react with acids to produce salts and water.
-Bases conduct electric current.

Arrhenius Acid
A chemical compound that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions, in aqueous solutions.

Arrhenius Base
A substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions, in aqueous solutions.

Strong Acid
Ionizes completely in aqueous solutions; string electrolyte; depends on the polarity of the bond between hydrogen and the element to which it is bonded and the ease with which that bind can be broken.

Weak Acid
An acid that releases few hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions.

Organic Acid
Contains the acidic carboxylate group– COOH, are generally weaker acids.

Strong Bases

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