Chemistry & Organic Chemistry G10

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Covalent Bond
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A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule.
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Intermolecular Forces
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The attractive forces between molecules.
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Fractional Distillation
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Separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling point (and hence chemical composition) by means of distillation, typically using a fractionating column.
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Fractions
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Defined as a group of chemicals that have similar boiling points. A common fractionating process is fractional distillation.
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Alkanes
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An alkane, or paraffin, is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon. Am alkane consists of hydrogen and carbon atoms. .
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Combustion
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Burning, or a chemical change that produces heat and light.
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Cracking
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The process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or long chain hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules such as light hydrocarbons, by the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in the precursors.
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Homologous Series
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A series of compounds with the same general formula, usually varying by a single parameter—such as the length of a carbon chain.
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Alkenes
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an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon-carbon double bond.
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Hydrogenation
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To treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
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Polymerization
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A process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
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Microbeads
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Are used especially as exfoliants in facial scrubs and body washes and to add texture to other personal care products (such as toothpastes and lip balms).
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Hydration
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Water is added to an unsaturated substrate, which is usually an alkene or an alkyne. This type of reaction is employed industrially to produce ethanol, isopropanol, and 2-butanol.
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Alcohols
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Any of a class of organic compounds characterized by one or more hydroxyl (−OH) groups attached to a carbon atom of an alkyl group (hydrocarbon chain).
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Carboxylic Acids
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An organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(=O)OH). The general formula of a carboxylic acid is R-COOH, with R referring to the rest of the (possibly quite large) molecule. … Salts and esters of carboxylic acids are called carboxylates.
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Esters
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An ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one -OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an -O-alkyl (alkoxy) group. Usually, esters are derived from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol.
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Estrification
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The general name for a chemical reaction in which two reactants (typically an alcohol and an acid) form an ester as the reaction product. Esters are common in organic chemistry and biological materials, and often have a characteristic pleasant, fruity odor.
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6.941
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Lithium has Atomic number of 3 and an Atomic mass of 7, what is the number of neutrons?
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What is a Chemical Family?
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A vertical column with the same properties.
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How are ionic compounds formed?
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When there is a transfer of electrons.
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What subatomic particles are involved in ionic compounds?
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Metal and non metal.
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How do covalent compounds form?
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When atoms share electrons.
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What subatomic particles are involved in covalent compounds?
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Non-metals
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What is the charge on calcium when it forms an ion?
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Positive 2
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What is the charge that results when a halogen forms an ion?
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Negative 1
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What information does the combining capacity of an element provide?
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Negatively charged particle.
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Positively Charged Particle
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What is the mass number?
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The bottom number on the element square, is equal to protons + neutrons.
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Classification of Matter
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