Chemistry Crossword

Flashcard maker : Ben Stevenson
There is a lot more to a good experiment than just test tubes and chemicals–consider how these “unknown” factors may influence the results.
Pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by a chemical reaction.
Working model to explain and predict the structure or properties of matter and nature, based on the results of repeated observations and experiments.
A standard reference experiment done under parallel or identical conditions by omitting the independent variable whose effect is being tested.
Transformation of a pure substance that results in a change in its composition, e.,g., combustion or corrosion (2 words).
Chemical Reaction
The reproducibility of measurements.
Either an element or a compound–its composition cannot be varied by physical means.
Pure Substance
Quantitative observation of the size, extent or amount of an object.
Although this way of studying natural phenomena is often presented as a series of steps, it is actually a process, of discovery (2 words).
Scientific Method
Qualitative description of the properties of a material, such as its color or appearance, usually made with the senses.
This prediction should never be compared to a wild guess–it should be based on prior observation, experience or logical reasoning.
Anything that has mass and occupies space–Chemistry really does ______!
The digits that are reported for a measurement to express the uncertainty in the measured quantity (2 words).
Significant Figures
Characteristic of a substance, such as its solubility, conductivity, melting point, ect. (2 words).
Physical Property
In science, it’s not really so much a rule so much as an accepted summary of observed properties or behavior in nature (2 words).
Natural Law
Describes how close a measured value is to an actual or known value.
Substance with a variable composition that can be altered to by simple physical means, such as by evaporating one of the components.
Controlled test or procedure carried out to learn more about the physical or natural world.
No report of an experiment is complete without a understanding of the source and experimental _____, which may be random or systematic.
Pure substance that can be broken down into simpler substances by a chemical reaction.
Water ____________ is a common method for determining the density of an irregularly shaped object or material.
This law states that matter is neither created nor destroyed in of any a chemical reaction (3 words).
Conservation of Mass
Ratio of mass to volume–a characteristic physical property of a substance.
Prefix for one million.
Fundamental unit of time measurement in the metric system.
Measured in degrees Celsius.
Measurement for the amount of space an object occupies.
Prefix corresponding to one-billionth.
To convert form centimeters to millimeters, _______ by 10.
One milliliter is equivalent to a _____ centimeter.
Metric prefix that is most appropriately used with meter to describe the size of a typical cell or bacterium.
Base unit for length in the metric system.
Prefix corresponding to 1/100.
This ratio of mass per unit volume is a characteristic physical property of a pure substance.
Derived unit approximately equal to the volume of one gram of one gram of water at room temperature.
The only base unit in the metric system that includes a prefix.
To convert from milligrams to grams, _____ by 1000.
Independent, fundamental quantity of measurement in the metric system from which all other quantities can be derived (2 words).
Base Unit
Describes the reproducibility or reliability of a series of measurements.
Metric prefix meaning 1000.
Linear measurement of an object from one end to another.
Base unit for volume in metric system.
Prefixes in the metric system corresponding to powers of this number.
Law of _____ proportions describes the formation of a series of compounds, such as NO, NO2, N2O, with different ratios by mass of two elements.
General class of elements that typically combine via covalent bonds to form molecular compounds.
Subatomic particle that gives an atom its nuclear charge.
Its positive charge arises due to loss of an electron from a neutral atom.
Studies of elements subjected to high voltage in _____ _____ tubes led to discovery of electrons, because that is what they are.
Cathode Ray
Hydrogen and deuterium have different numbers of this subatomic particle.
Sum of protons and neutrons in an atom (2 words).
Mass Number
With respect to either mass or energy, this property is the law because it’s a fundamental principle.
As a group, these elements conduct electricity and can be drawn out into wires or hammered into various shapes.
Adjective used to describe the force holding protons together in the nucleus–it is not weak!
Negatively charged ion.
A number without a unit is a meaningless measurement, and carbon-12 is the standard for this one (3 words).
Atomic Mass Unit
Net force resulting from sum of attractive and repulsive forces between charged atoms in a crystal lattice (2 words).
Ionic Bond
Charged atoms resulting from a gain or loss of electrons.
Particle consisting of two or more atoms joined together via covalent bonds.
Weighted average of the masses of naturally occurring isotopes for an element, relative to carbon-12 (2 words).
Atomic Mass
Atoms of the same element that have different mass numbers.
Small, dense core of an atom is only about 1/100,000 the overall size of an atom.
Modern _____ ______ began with a series of postulates laid out by John Dalton almost 200 years ago (2 words).
Atomic Theory
Law of constant ____ states that a given compound will always have the same ratio of elements by mass.
Subatomic Particles discovered by J. J. Thompson.
Spontaneous disintegration of the nucleus of an atom.
Ammonium, sulfate, nitrate, ect. are examples of ____ ions
Net force arising due to sharing of electrons between the nuclei of two or more atoms (2 words).
Covalent Bond
Most recognized symbol of chemistry across the world is used to predict and explain trends in the properties of elements (2 words).
Periodic Table
Elements in the periodic table are arranged in order of increasing ____ _____, with no gaps (2 words).
Atomic Number
Force holding atoms together, may be covalent, ionic or metallic (2 words).
Chemical Bond
Rutherford’s investigation of ____ scattering led to the discovery of the nucleus.
This adjective used with formula gives the simplest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound.
The nuclear age proved that this particle really was not indivisible.
Each electron in an atom is described by a unique set of four quantum.
Characteristic of electromagnetic radiation that is directly proportional to energy.
Electromagnetic radiation that is just outside the visible range, toward lower energy.
Three-dimensional region of space around the nucleus where an electron, if present, may be found.
The 2s and 2p orbitals are examples of different _____.
Named after Heisenberg, the ____ principle expresses a limit on our knowledge of the location and momentum of an electron.
Transition of an electron from a lower energy level to a higher energy level is accompanied by the ______ of energy.
Electromagnetic radiation that is just outside the visible range, toward higher energy.
Modern ____ theory explains and predicts the properties of electrons in terms of their wave characteristics.
____ radiation ranges from cosmic rays and gamma rays at the high energy end to radio waves at the low energy end.
The ______ principle from the German word for “build up” predicts that electrons are assigned to orbitals in order from lowest to highest energy.
Characteristic of waves that is inversely proportional to the energy.
Physical constant that is characteristic of all electromagnetic radiation; used to calculate distances of stars and galaxies in light years (3 words).
Speed of light
Bioluminescence is an example of the ____ of light by natural processes in living organisms.
Qualitative method for identifying an element based on the color of light emitted from an excited-state atom (2 words).
Flame test
Rules for writing electron _____ help chemists determine the number of outer shell electrons an atom has.
Einstein’s explanation of the _____ effect in 1905 brought about a new era of understanding in physics and chemistry regarding the quantum nature of light.
Emission of light by excited state atoms consisting of a series of discrete bands at specific wavelengths; not continuous (2 words).
Line spectrum
The number of electrons that may occupy the ______ energy level n is given by n^2.
The visible _____ spans only a very small range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation.
Lowest energy level that is higher in energy than the ground state (2 words).
Ground state
Electron energy level that is higher in energy than the ground state (2 words).
Excited state
Fundamental minimum unit or “particle” of light energy.
Physical constant relating the energy and frequency of light is named after Max ____.
Members of the s-block of elements are found on the _____ side of the periodic table.
Located between silicon and tin in the periodic table, the properties of this “unknown” element were accurately predicted by Mendeleev in 1869.
Much less numerous than their counterparts on the left, these elements on the right side of the periodic table readily gain electrons to form anions.
These elements straddle a stair-step region or line in the periodic table and are essential components in modern technology, including computers.
This rare-earth element provides a common name for a series of elements set off from the main section of the periodic table.
Group 2 family of elements, so called because they form basic oxides and are prevalent in the Earth’s crust (3 words).
Alkaline earth metals
Members of a family of reactive metals that typically ignite in contact with water (2 words).
Alkali metals
Iconic “symbol” of chemistry that can be used to predict trends in the properties of elements (2 words).
Periodic table
Adjective describing the physical property of a substance that can be hammered into thin sheets or films.
Vertical columns of elements in the subatomic particles in an atom that are responsible for their bonding characteristics (2 words).
This characteristic physical property of metals reflects a usefulness in electrical circuits.
Valence electrons
Another name for a vertical group of elements in the periodic table with similar chemical properties.
These elements are typically shiny and lustrous, are good conductors, and can be drawn out into wires.
Members of the Group 18 family of elements were once thought to be inert (2 words).
Members of the d-block in the middle of the periodic table that typically form colorful compounds (2 words).
Noble gases
Fluorine has the highest _____ of any element in the periodic table; attracts electron density in a covalent bond.
Transition metals
Elements are arranged in order of increasing _____ ______ in the modern periodic table; the concept however was unknown at the time of Mendeleev (2 words).
Atomic number
Energy required to remove an electron from an atom in the gaseous state (2 words).
Ionization energy
Characteristic size of an atom that increases going down a column in the periodic table due to increasing distance of electrons from the nucleus (2 words).
Atomic radius
Predictable increases or decreases in the properties of elements either across a row or down a column in the periodic table (2 words).
Periodic trends
Horizontal rows of elements in the periodic table that are numbered based on the value of the outermost occupied principal energy level.
Common name for the most reactive group of nonmetals in the periodic table.
Name of this transition metal is often used to describe a deep blue color.
Nobel gas; also an adjective to describe signs that are brightly lit up at night.
Most reactive nonmetals in the periodic table and extremely poisonous.
This reactive nonmetal is a gas and a powerful disinfectant for pools and municipal water treatment.
Galvanized steel has a thin coating of this metal to protect the underlying iron against corrosion.
Expensive transition metal used to make strong but lightweight golf clubs, as well as artificial joints.
Most abundant element in the universe; also the lightest.
Transition metal between chromium and iron.
Lightweight alkali metal that makes good batteries.
Reactive nonmetals that is a solid and comes in three forms–red, yellow and white.
This transition metal is worth more than five cents.
Bananas are a good source of this metal ion, which in elemental form is a reactive, dark blue solid.
Vital element in every breath we take.
Noble gas that makes up almost 1% of air.
Nonmetal found in borax.
Add just a little bit of this transition metal to iron and you get a bright, shiny steel used in car bumpers and faucets.
This noble gas is named after the Greek word for the Sun, where its spectral lines were first observed.
Most abundant gas in the air we breathe.
Lightweight metal named after Scandinavia because that’s where it was first discovered.
Drink milk so you will build strong bones with this alkaline earth metal ion.
Smallest alkaline earth element, it’s not as common as many of its “cousins” in the same family.
An uncommon element, but this transition metal forms beautiful and colorful salts; named after Norse goddess of beauty.
The earth has a molten core made of this metal.
Common ribbon form of this alkaline earth metal burns with a blinding white flame.
A “valley” in California is named after this element that is the backbone of all integrated circuits.
Most processed foods have a high concentration of this metal ion that may be linked to high blood pressure.
Graphite and diamond do not look alike, but they are two forms of this element.
Bright yellow nonmetal that is often accused of of having a bad smell.
The Statue of Liberty is green because of this reddish-orange metal.
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