Chemistry 101 Final Exam Review

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Hypothesis
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Testable statement
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Quantitative
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Numerical data
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Qualitative
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Nonnumerical data
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Law
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Statement of generally observed behavior (gravity, Newton’s laws, etc.)
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Theory
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Why or how something happened
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Four Goals of Science
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Prediction, control, understanding, explaning
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Experiments
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Reproducible and falsifiable
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State
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Solid, liquid, gas
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Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Matter
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All matter exists of tiny particles in constant motion
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Kinetic Energy
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Energy of motion of particles
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Macroscopic
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Experiments and observations
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Submicroscopic (particulate)
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Atoms and molecules
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Solution
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Homogeneous mixture of water and dissolved substances
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Matter
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Occupies space, has mass
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Heterogeneous Mixture
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Nonuniform composition
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Homogeneous Mixture
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Uniform composition, solution
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Mixtures
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More than one pure substance
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Pure Substances
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Cannot be further purified
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Compounds
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Elements united in fixed ratios
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Elements
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Cannot be subdivided
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Atom
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Smallest particle of an element that retains chemical properties
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Density
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m/v (mass over volume)
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Extensive Properties
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Depend on amount present
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Intensive Properties
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Do not depend on amount present
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Physical Changes
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Changes in physical properties (does not create a new substance)
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Chemical Change
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Creates a new substance
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Chemical Property
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How a substance will react with another
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Chemistry
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Study of properties (compositions) and transformation of matter
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Steps to the Scientific Method
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Observation (quant. v. qual), question, hypothesis, experiment, data (what happened?), draw conclusions (why did it happen?), tell the world
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Groups or families
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Vertical columns in the periodic table
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A Group Elements
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All elements that are not transitional (or in the lanthanide/actinum sections)
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B Group Elements
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Transitional elements
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Periods
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Horizontal rows in the periodic table
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Metals
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(Mostly) solid at room temperature, conductors, ductile, malleable, form alloys
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Ductile
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Can be shaped into wires
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Malleable
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Can be rolled into sheets
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Alloys
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Mixtures of one or more metals in another metal
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Nonmetals
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All elements to the right of metalloids and hydrogen, vary in properties, do not conduct electricity
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Metalloids (semimetals)
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Includes characteristics of metals and nonmetals
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Alkali Metals, Group 1A
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Solids at room temperature, reactive, found naturally in compounds
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Alkaline Earth Metals, Group 2A
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(Mostly) reactive, oxides form basic solutions
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Group 3A
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All metals except for one metalloid
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Group 4A
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Contains carbon (two metalloids, two metals, and lead)
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Allotrope
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Element exist in different (and distinct) forms
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Group 5A
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Contains nitrogen and phosphorus (two metalloids, one metal, two nonmetals)
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Group 6A
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Contains oxygen and sulfur (one metalloid, one metal, three nonmetals)
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Halogens, Group 7A
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All nonmetals that are diatomic
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Diatomic
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(Mostly) exist naturally in pairs, most reactive of all elements (HONClBrIF or BrINClHOF)
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Noble Gases, Group 8A
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Least reactive of all elements, all gases
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Transition Elements, Groups 1B – 8B
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Group of elements between Group 2A and 3A, all metals
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Centi- (c)
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.01, 10^-2
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Milli- (m)
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.001, 10^-3
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Micro (u)
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.000 001, 10^-6
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Nano (n)
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.000 000 001, 10^-9
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inches to centimeters
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1 in = 2.54 cm
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feet to inches
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1 ft = 12 in
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miles to feet
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1 mi = 5280 ft
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pounds to ounces
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1 lb = 16 oz
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pounds to grams
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1 lb = 453.59 g
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liters to quarts
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1 L = 1.0567 qt
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mililiters to centimeters cubed
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1 mL = 1 cm^3
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kelvin to celsius
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C + 273.15
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celsius to fahrenheit
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C = 5/9 (F – 32)
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kilocalories to kilojoules
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1 kcal = 4.184 kj
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Robert Boyle
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(Scientist) Gas Laws
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Joseph Priestley
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(Scientist) Isolated CO2
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Antoine Lavoisier
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(Scientist) Law of Conservation of Mass
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Law of Conservation of Mass
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Mass is constant through chemical reactions
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Thomas Young
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(Scientist) Electromagnetic Spectrum
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Joseph Proust
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(Scientist) Law of Definite Proportion
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John Dalton
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(Scientist) Law of Multiple Proportions, Atomic Theory
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Law of Definite Proportion
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A compound will always contain same proportion of elements by mass (ex. water will always contain 1/9 hydrogen and 8/9 oxygen)
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Law of Multiple Proportion
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When elements combine, they have a ratio of small whole numbers
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J.J. Thomson
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(Scientist) Electrons, cathode ray tube
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Robert Milikan
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(Scientist) Charge of electron, oil drop
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Ernest Rutherford
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(Scientist) protons, gold foil
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James Chadwick
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(Scientist) neutron, beryllium/polonium source
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(Equation) Avg. Atomic Mass
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[isotope mass x abundance] + …
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Number of things to moles
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Divide by avogadro’s number
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Moles to number of things
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Multiply by avogadro’s number
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Moles to grams
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Multiply by molar mass
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Grams to moles
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Divide by molar mass
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Order of Electromagnetic Spectrum
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Gamma, X, Ultraviolet, visible, infared, microwaves, radiowaves: FM, short wave, AM
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Avogadro’s number
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6.023 x 10^23
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Precision
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Consistency
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Accuracy
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Correctness
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(Equation) Percent Error
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Error in measurement / accepted value, x100

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