Chem 30 | Organic Chemistry

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Organic Chemistry
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Study of carbon based compounds. Does not include oxides, carbonates, cyanided, carbides.
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Isomers
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Same number if atoms (molecular formula) but different arrangement (structure)
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Hydrocarbon
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Organic molecule containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms
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Alkanes
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Hydrocarbons containing only carbon-carbon single bonds
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Saturated
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Hydrocarbons with single bonds
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Alkyl Groups
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A branch or side chain consisting of only singly bonded carbon and hydrogen atoms not included in the main chain
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Cyclic Hydrocarbon
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Hydrocarbons with a closed ring
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Cycloalkanes
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All carbon-carbon bonds in a cyclic hydrocarbon are single bonds
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Alkenes
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Hydrocarbons with carbon-carbon double bonds
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Alkynes
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Hydrocarbons with carbon-carbon triple bonds
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Unsaturated
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Hydrocarbons with double or triple bonds
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Aromatics
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Organic structure that contains benzene or a benzene like structure
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Carcinogen
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Cancer producing substance
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Properties of Benzene
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-molecules are nonpolar -no evidence supports that there are double bonds -very unreactive with hydrogen -all carbon-carbon bonds are the same length -possesses resonance
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Resonance
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A concept used to describe the true structure for certain compounds that cannot be accurately represented using any one type of bonding structure
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More carbons =
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Higher melting and boiling points
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Reactivity __________ from alkynes and alkanes due to less stability in the triple and double bonds
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Decreases
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Viscosity
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Property of a substances’ resistance to flow
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As carbons atoms increase, the substance becomes more _____ and the viscosity _____
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Dense, decreases
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Fractional distillation
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Physically separating crude oil using difference in boiling points
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Solvent Extraction
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Solvent added to dissolve and remove impurities
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Cracking
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Breaking large molecules into smaller molecules
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Hydro cracking
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Combo of catalytic and hydrogenation; breaks down large aromatic molecules in bitumen into smaller aromatic and aliphatic molecules
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Catalyitc Reforming
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Converting molecules into aromatic compounds (to increase burning properties ) using catalyts
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Alkylization (Isomerization)
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Increases # of branches
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Bitumen Upgrading
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Converting bitumen into crude oil that can be handled by oil refineries
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Hydrogenation
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Reduces the sulfur content in gasoline by causing reactions of the organic substances in partially upgraded bitumen with hydrogen at high temperature and pressure.
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Functional Group
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A characteristic arrangement of atoms within a molecule that determines the most important chemical and physical properties of a class of compounds
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Organic Halides
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Organic compounds in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by halogen atoms
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Alcohol
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Organic molecule that possesses a hydroxyl functional group (-OH)
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Primary Alcohols
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Carbon atom carrying the -OH group is bonded to one other carbon atom
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Secondary Alcohols
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Carbon atom carrying the -OH group is bonded to two other carbon atoms
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Teritiary Alcohols
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Carbon carrying the -OH group is bonded to three other carbon atoms
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Polyalcohols
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Alcohols that contain more than one hydroxyl group; their names indicate the number and positions of the hudroxyl groups
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Esters
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Organic “salts” fromed from the reaction of a carboxylic acid and an alcohol
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Esterification Reaction
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Carboxylic acid combines with an alcohol (ester linkage) forming two products, an ester and a water. Also known as a condensation reaction
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Complete Combustion
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A hydrocarbon (fuel) reacts with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water vapour, (as the only chemical products) and heat
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Incomplete Combustion
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A hydrocarbon (fuel) that reacts with oxygen to produce carbon monoxide, water vapour and heat
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Addition Reaction (Hydrogenation)
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When hydrogen is added to an unsaturated hydrocarbon to reduce the multiple bonds
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Substitution Reactions
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Breaking a carbon-hydrogen bond and replacing the hydrogen atom with another atom or a group of atoms
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Elimination Reactions
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Atoms are removed from an organic molecule and a double bond forms between the two carbon atoms from which the atoms were removed
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Dehydration
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Removal of water from an alcohol
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Dehydrohalogenation
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Removal of hydrogen and halogen atoms of an organic halide
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Polymerization
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A very long molecule made by linking together many smaller molecules called monomers
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Addition Polymerization
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Monomer units join together in a process that involves rearranging of electrons in double or triple bonds in the monomer
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Condensation polymerization
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Monomers are combined through multiple condensation reactions to form a polymer
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Sucrose
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Combination of glucose and fructose

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