CHEM 101 Unit 1: Inorganic Chemistry

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Anion
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Negatively charged ion or group of ions
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Atom
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smallest unit of an element having the chemical properties of the element
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Cation
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any atom or group of atoms with a positive charge
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Chemical Formula
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a representation of a compound or ion in which elemental symbols represent types of atoms and subscripts show the relative number of atoms
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Chemical Reaction
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Process in which atoms are rearranged to produce new combinations
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Chemistry
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Study of matter, its chemical and physical properties, the chemical and physical changes it undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany those processes
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Compound
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Substance that is characterized by constant composition and that can be chemically broken down into elements
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Density
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Mass per unit volume of a substance D=M/V
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Element
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Substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical or physical means
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Isotope
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Atom of the same element that differs in mass because it contains different numbers of neutrons.
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Law of Conservation of Mass
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Matter cannot be created or destroyed
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Mass
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A quatity of matter
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Matter
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Anything that has mass and takes up space
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Mole Concept
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A method that allows the relative number of reactant patricles involved in a chemical reaction to be known
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Mole
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A mole of a particular substance is the number of grams proportional to the atomic or molecular weight of the substance
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Molecule
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Unit in which the atoms of two or more elements are held together by chemical bonds
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Analytical chemistry
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The analysis of matter to determine its composition and the quantity of each kind of matter that is present
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Inorganic Chemistry
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The study of matter that consists of all of the elements other than carbon and hydrogen and their combinations
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Physical chemistry
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A discipline that attempts to explain the way in which matter behaves
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Solution
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A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
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Solute
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A component of a solution that is present in lesser quantity than the solvent
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Solvent
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The solution component that is present in the larger quantity
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Specific Gravity
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The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water at a specific temperature
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Volume
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Space occupied by an object
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Weight
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The force exerted on an object by gravity
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Chemical properties of matter
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characteristics of a substance that relate to the substance’s participation in a chemical reaction
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Physical properties
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characteristics of a substance that can be observed without the substance undergoing changes such as color, height, or weight
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Intensive property
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A property of matter that is independent of the quantity of a substance
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Extensive property
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a property of matter that is dependent of the quantity of a substance
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Classifications of matter
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Pure substance: a substance that has only one component Mixtures: a combination of two or more pure substances in which each substance retains its own identity.
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Homogeneous
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consists of only one phase
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Heterogeneous
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consists of more than one phase
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Electrical neutrality
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An atom has no net electrical charge
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Structures of an atom
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Protons, neutrons, and electrons
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Electron states
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ground state: the lowest possible energy condition of an electron. Excited state: when an electron absorbs energy, it travels from a lower level to a higher level. Relaxation: the release of energy by an atom resulting from electrons falling back into a lower energy level.
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Purpose of the periodic table
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provides specific information about each element organizes the elements according to physical and chemical properties.
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General Format of the table
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periods:horizontal rows Groups: vertical columns
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Groups
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Metals,Nonmetals, transiton elements(heavy metals), alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, carbon group, transitional metals, halogens, noble gases
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Octet rule
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a rule predicting that atoms form the most stable molecules or ions when they are surrounded by eight electrons in their highest occupied energy level

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