Chapters 7 and 8

According to the text, learning involves
A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience
Conditioning is the process of
learning associations
Pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrate
classical conditioning
Children often learn to ASSOCIATE pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying
operant conditioning
After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates
observational learning
John B. Watson considered himself to be a
Last year, Dr. Moritano cleaned Notacha’s skin with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies vaccination shots. Which of the following processes accounts for the fact that Natacha currently becomes fearful every time she smells rubbing alcohol?
classical conditioning
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning is called a
neutral stimulus
Which of the following is an unconditioned response
Sweating in hot weather
In Pavlov’s experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was
the presentation of food in the dog’s mouth
In Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise. In this fictional example, the loud noise is a
unconditioned stimulus
In Pavlov’s experiments, the dog’s salivation triggered by the taste of food was a
unconditioned response
In Pavlov’s experiments, the dog’s salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was a
conditioned response
A child’s learned fear of the mere sight of a hypodermic needle is a
Conditioned response
If a tone causes a dog to salivate because it has regularly been associated with the presentation of food, the tone is called a
conditioned stimulus
Researchers condition a flatworm to contract its body to a light by repeatedly pairing the light with ELECTRIC shock. The stage in which the flatworm’s contraction response to light is established and gradually strengthened is called
Associating a conditioned stimulus with a new neutral stimulus can create a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. This best illustrates
Higher-order conditioning
Extinction occurs when a ____ is no longer paired with a ____.
Conditioned Stimulus; Unconditioned Stimulus
Makayla developed an intense fear of flying five years ago when she was in a plane crash. The fact that today she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone
Spontaneous recovery refers to the
reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
Dogs conditioned to salivate when rubbed on their front paws also began to salivate when other parts of their bodies were rubbed. This best illustrates
Compared with nonabused children, those who have experienced a history of abuse show a stronger brain wave response to an unfamiliar but angry looking face. This best illustrates

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