Chapters 5-8 Soci Psyc

Much of the style we attribute to men is
typical of people of both sexes of higher status and power.

You choose to attend a college that is known for its arts program, as you would like to develop your talents further. This is an example of how
people choose their social situations.

Leung and Bond (2004) reported that there were five universal dimensions of social beliefs. Which of the following is NOT one of those five?
justice

As an exchange student, you notice that standards of beauty are much different in the country you are visiting. Billboards and advertisements display women that are not as thin as in the United States. You conclude that this difference in standards of beauty is the result of different
cultures

What cultural differences or similarities were found in the research on pedestrian interaction in the U.S. and Japan?
Both cultures tended to look back at someone who looked at them.

Given the logic of evolutionary psychology, we can assume our distant ancestors preferred _______ foods.
nutritious and energy-providing

According to research on gender differences, which statement is NOT true?
Women are more vulnerable to autism.

The buffer space we like to maintain around our bodies is called our personal
space

On which dimension do females and males differ?
Ability to wiggle their ears

Some norms are culture-specific, while others are universal. The universality of some norms is accounted for by
genetic predispositions.

Human kinship is to the _______ perspective as social diversity is to the _______ perspective.
evolutionary; cultural

Dr. Smith is interested in how the principles of natural selection impact humans’ cognitions and behavior. Dr. Smith is most likely a(n)
evolutionary psychologist.

A set of behavior expectations for males and females is called
gender role.

The implications of evolutionary psychology suggest that human success is defined by
having grandchildren.

The amount of personal space we require is based on all the following factors EXCEPT
weight.

Research has found that _______ are generally superior at decoding others’ emotional messages.
women

Evolutionary psychology has been criticized for
hindsight biases.

The text suggests that most religions encourage us to view ourselves as _______ and others as _______.
free agents; influenced by their environments

Which statement about social norms is FALSE?
Social norms are not affected by culture.

According to research conducted by Leung and Bond (2004), those people who espouse ______ express lower life satisfaction as well as right-wing politics.
cynicism

If we expect someone to be hostile, our actions toward that person may induce hostility. This is an example of how
people create their social situations.

All of the following are universal friendship norms EXCEPT
not embarrassing the friend with public criticism.

______ is the study of the evolution of behavior using principles of natural selection.
Evolutionary psychology

Which one of the following statements is TRUE?
Gender roles vary by culture.

Norms _____ behavior.
prescribe

Women are typically _____ leaders. Men are typically _____ leaders.
transformational, task

Maccoby (2002) found that girls tend to _______ compared to boys.
talk more intimately

During a conversation, men are more likely than women to do all of the following EXCEPT
smile more`

The Nurture Assumption refers to the belief that
the way parents bring up their children governs who their children become.

As men and women perform more similar roles, their psychological differences
shrink

A very strong cultural norm dictates that males should be taller than their female mates. This height norm is cited in your text as evidence that
biology and culture interact to develop gender-role norms.

The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next are called
cultures

One of the most important similarities in humans is our capacity
to learn and adapt.

Pratto and her colleagues (1997) reported that _______ tend to gravitate toward jobs that reduce inequalities, such as a public defender.
women

Which of the following is not a norm of war?
Release prisoners upon surrender

Studies suggest that most women, if they stress one factor more than any other, tend to prefer men who
have substantial resources and status.

Evolutionary psychologists study
both physical and psychological traits.

You read about an unsolved murder in the newspaper. Given what you have learned in social psychology, you can reasonably predict a(n) _______ committed the murder.
man

In which of the following situations are women likely to be more aggressive than men?
spreading of malicious gossip

According to Baumeister, a “huge and powerful advantage of culture” is
the division of labor.

In a 2010 survey, _____ believed that men have more rights to a job than women when jobs are scarce.
the majority of people from collectivist cultures

The 2007 Gallup survey reports that only ___ percent of adults believe that “human beings developed from earlier species.”
50

Dr. Smith studies how diet, drugs, and stress can impact genetic expression. Dr. Smith studies
epigenetics

Milgram’s experiment seems to have made use of which technique?
foot in the door

How did Asch’s studies of conformity differ from those of Sherif?
Asch’s participants could clearly see the correct judgment.

Ahmed generally likes to go home to visit his family during vacation. However, after his father tells him that he must be home during spring vacation, Ahmed decides to remain at college. Ahmed’s behavior is best understood in terms of
psychological reactance.

A motive to protect or restore one’s sense of freedom is called
reactance

People are LEAST likely to conform when
they have made a prior public commitment.

A study conducted by Snyder and Fromkin (1980) revealed that people feel better when they see themselves as
moderately unique.

A change in behavior or belief to accord with others is called
conformity

The psychological reactance theory may help explain why
all

The most famous and controversial experiments in social psychology were conducted by
milgram

Which of the following is NOT an example of informational influence?
when subjects are bilingual

Research on group size and conformity has shown that there is more conformity with
more groups of smaller number of people.

In the 60s and 70s, researchers observed only weak connections between personal characteristics and conformity. Later research finds
it can predict average rather than specific actions.

The motive to protect or restore one’s sense of freedom is known as
reactance

Which is not one of following is false?
When group norms encourage people to comply against their individual beliefs they don’t affect their behavior or beliefs at a later time.

In a study by Snyder (1980), students who were told that their personal attitudes were nearly identical to those of 10,000 other students _______ when they participated in a conformity experiment.
asserted their individuality by being nonconformist

Who is most likely to be pleased with being called a “conformist?”
Amy who lives in Japan.

Kevin flosses twice a week. If told that other students at his college floss 10 times a week, research by Schmiege et al. (2010) suggests that Kevin
will begin flossing more often.

In Western individualistic societies, the word “conformity” carries
a negative value judgment.

Conformity is greater when people respond publicly before a group. This pattern reflects
normative influence.

A social role is
a cluster of norms.

A concern for _______ produces normative influence, while a concern for _______ produces informational influence.
social image; being correct

The Werther effect is most likely to occur
in places where the suicide story is publicized.

Jim decides to change his answer on his math homework after his friends explain to him why his original answer was incorrect. This is an example of
informational influence.

When Regina returned to the U.S. after two years in Madagascar, she felt uncomfortable and out of place. She was experiencing
reentry distress.

According to the text, personality predicts behavior when social influences are
weak

In a variation of the Milgram study, teachers were required to force the learner’s hand into contact with a shock plate. Under these conditions,
there was a decrease in compliance to shock.

Sherif’s study of groups watching a pinpoint of light indicated that
people conform when they face ambiguous situations.

Rivalry between groups is often most intense when the groups
closely resemble each other.

Which researcher asked participants to offer judgments of line lengths to test conformity?
asch

Compared to people in individualistic countries, those in collectivist countries are
more responsive to others’ influence.

According to conformity research, a group’s social power is deflated when
just one other person also differs from the majority.

In follow-up experiments to his initial study, Milgram made the learner’s protests more compelling by having him complain of a heart condition, then scream and plead for release, and finally refuse to answer. With this added condition,
the majority of participants still fully obeyed the experimenter’s demands.

Several restaurant managers complied with orders from a telephone caller, posing as a police officer, to strip search a customer or employee. This is an example of the power of _______ on compliance.
the legitimacy of authority

While control participants were correct about line-length judgments more than 99 percent of the time in Asch’s conformity study, his naive participants conformed to the incorrect judgments of others ___ percent of the time.
37

Which of the following is NOT one of the verbal prods used in Milgram’s studies to keep participants going?
If you do not continue, you will need to take the “learner’s” place.

In one variation of his original experiment, Milgram arranged for a confederate “clerk” (posing as a fellow participant) to assume command in the experimenter’s absence. As a result of this manipulation,
80 percent of the teachers refused to comply fully.

A lone black female lawyer in a group of black and white male lawyers will be most conscious of being
female

When is personality most likely to predict behavior?
when situations are weak

The extent to which members of a group are bound together, such as by attraction to one another, is called
cohesion

When our behavior is a result of our boss telling us to do something, it is a form of
obedience

Even though you really dislike wearing a dress, you decide to wear one to your cousin’s wedding. This is an example of
compliance

After President Bush announced his position regarding a possible war with Iraq, he was unlikely to change his mind. This most likely reflects the
fact that public commitment reduces susceptibility to social influence.

If you clean your room only because your parents order you to, your behavior is a form of
obedience.

A cult has all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
the use of mind-altering drugs.

The Eldersveld and Dodge (1954) study identified which group casting the most votes in an election?
The one that was exposed to mass media and visited personally.

The _____ route to persuasion occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker’s attractiveness.
peripheral

Suzy is interested in purchasing a DVD player, and is overwhelmed by the many different models available at her local electronics store. She decides to purchase a shiny, metallic-looking model, as it is the best-looking one in the store. Suzy has been persuaded to purchase this particular DVD player because of the _______ route to persuasion.
peripheral

Kiesler (1971) recommended that one way to stimulate people’s thinking so that they become more committed to their positions is to
mildly attack their position.

The _______ route to persuasion occurs when interested people focus on arguments.
central

Who is the most responsive to rational appeals?
well-educated and analytical people

Miller and his colleagues (1976) reported a _______ relationship between trustworthiness and the rate at which people speak.
positive

Mere repetition of a message can
increase its fluency and make the message more believable.

The _______ effect refers to how information that is presented first usually has the most influence.
primacy

The _______ effect refers to how information that is presented last can have the most influence.
recency

Americans’ support for the Iraq war increased after the war began mainly because of the
persuasive messages in the U.S. media.

Forgetting creates the recency effect when
time has separated the two messages.

The Bennington College study revealed that
views embraced at an impressionable time often survive a lifetime of experience.

As an example of how persuasion can be used to promote healthier living, the CDC has reported that smoking in the U.S. has ______ over the last 40 years.
decreased to 21 percent

As a general rule of thumb, persuasion _______ as the significance and familiarity of the issue ______.
decreases; increases

Attitudes regarding the war with Iraq differ significantly depending on
the differing information received.

Messages are best understood and remembered when they are
wtitten

Speaking to a huge anti-union retail store, an anti-union political candidate’s expertise seems to
incrwace

You are more likely to be persuaded when a message is
clear and easy to comprehend and the arguments are convincing.

A communicator is said to be _______ when he or she is perceived as both an expert and trustworthy.
credible

We tend to like people who are like us. This exemplifies which characteristic of attractiveness?
similaitu

People who have a high need for cognition are likely to
prefer central routes to persuasion.

When a choice concerns matters of personal value or ways of life, _______ communicators have more influence.
similar

Perceived trustworthiness includes all of the following behaviors EXCEPT
The audience believes the communicator is trying to persuade them.

The way a message is delivered is what social psychologists refer to as the _______ of communication.
channel

Werner and her colleagues (2002) conducted a study on aluminum can recycling at the University of Utah and found that the most effective message was a
two-sided one.

When Werner and her colleagues (2002) placed signs on a campus with a two-sided message that not only stated the importance of recycling but also acknowledged the inconvenience of it, recycling
increased to 80 percent.

Speaking to a labor union, a pro-union professor’s expertise seems to
Speaking to a labor union, a pro-union professor’s expertise seems to

When Asch (1946) presented students with a description of someone as “intelligent, industrious, impulsive, critical, stubborn, and envious,” they rated the person more positively than if the opposite order of adjectives was presented. This demonstrates the _______ effect.
primacy

Research has concluded that stimulating thinking makes stronger messages _______ persuasive and (because of counterarguing) weak messages _______ persuasive.
more; less

Which statement is NOT true about the best way to deal with media information?
Messages are best comprehended and recalled when spoken.

Ted is most likely to elicit opinion change from an audience whose opinion is greatly discrepant from his own if Ted
is credible.

Persuasion can be resisted by
making a public commitment to one’s own position.

If people remember the message better than the reason for discounting it, the impact of a noncredible person may _______ over time.
increase

According to Myers, advertisers for beverages and clothing tend to adopt marketing strategies that use the _______ route to persuasion.
peripheral

The _____-route process is more likely to lead to long-term attitude and behavior changes than is the _____-route process.
central; peripheral

When an initially discounted message becomes effective, a delayed impact of the message occurs. This is called the _______ effect.
sleeper

Exposing people to weak attacks on their attitudes, which then stimulates thinking in support of the initial attitude, is known as
attitude inoculation.

Darley and Cooper (1972) found that when students were invited to write essays advocating a strict dress code, which was against the students’ own positions, the students were not willing to write the essays even if they were paid. After turning down the money, the students became
more confident in their decision.

Nora, a single mom, needs to ask her parents for money. To minimize their objections to her request, she should
have her busy, distracting little toddler along when she makes her request.

Which of the following is a comment you are LEAST likely to hear being made within a group characterized by groupthink?
“Let’s weigh all the alternatives carefully before we proceed.”

Because of the relationship between crowding and arousal, you are likely to _______ on a difficult exam in a densely packed classroom.
poorly

One effect of deindividuation is
diminished self-restraint.

The presence of other improves an individual’s performance on all of the following tasks EXCEPT
completing mazes.

Which of the following is NOT one of Janis’s (1982) recommendations on how to prevent groupthink?
assign someone the role of mindguard

People in groups will loaf less when the
task is challenging, appealing, or involving.

Deindividuation is _____ likely when self-awareness is _____.
less; high

Research on group polarization began with the erroneous conclusion that group discussion leads to
more risk than the average individual would take.

Professional athletes often perform better in front of a large crowd during a game than alone during practice. This finding supports the theory of
social facilitation.

Which is NOT a factor in why other people create arousal in us?
vanity

Which is NOT one of the three ways identified by Brown and Paulus (2002) to enhance group brainstorming?
Have the individuals then the group brainstorm.

A person who is able to motivate others to identify with and commit themselves to the group’s mission would be best described as a(n)
transformational leader.

Evaluation apprehension helps explain why people perform best when
their co-actor is slightly superior.

Under the definition that is in the text, which of the following is NOT a group?
five people riding the city bus

The concern for how others are evaluating us is called
evaluation apprehension.

The relationship between self-consciousness and deindividuation is
negative

According to the social facilitation effect, social psychologists can accurately predict that athletes will perform _______ with a large audience.
best

People who are made self-aware by acting in front of a mirror or TV camera have been found to
behave more consistently with their attitudes.

When people learn about others’ positions, without making a prior commitment and without discussing their own position, they will
adjust their responses to be more in line with the others’ position.

According to the text, physical anonymity _______ results in antisocial behavior.
sometimes

Social psychologists have accurately predicted that _______ will exhibit less social loafing.
women

During which activity did Ringelmann first observe social loafing?
tug a war

People are more likely to exhibit social loafing if
rewards are divided equally regardless of individual effort.

A false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling, or how they are responding is what social psychologists call
pluralistic ignorance.

Closed-mindedness is most clearly fostered by which of the following symptoms of groupthink?
rationa’ization

I become more cautious in the group because, when I discuss a personal decision with the group members, they all suggest many interesting, influential arguments favoring a cautious approach. My shift is consistent with the ____ theory of group polarization.
informational influence

Social comparison is more likely to sway responses on
value-laden judgments.

Sam has a tendency to contribute little effort to group assignments, as he thinks others will be sure to pick up the slack in an effort to get a good grade. This is an example of
social loafing.

Two or more people who interact with and influence one another for longer than a few moments is what social psychologists call a
group

Groupthink can be defined as
a tendency to suppress dissent in the interests of group harmony.

What underlying processes help to explain the occurrence of group polarization?
informational influences and normative influences

Watson (1973) found that cultures with depersonalized warriors were
more likely to brutalize their victims.

Groups tend to loaf less when
the members of the group are friends.

Triplett (1898) conducted one of social psychology’s first laboratory experiments by asking children to wind string on a fishing reel. The results of the study indicated that there was a positive relationship between the speed at which the children wound the reel and the presence of other children. Later studies found the same pattern and dubbed it
Triplett (1898) conducted one of social psychology’s first laboratory experiments by asking children to wind string on a fishing reel. The results of the study indicated that there was a positive relationship between the speed at which the children wound the reel and the presence of other children. Later studies found the same pattern and dubbed it

When the output of collective farms and private plots were compared,
the private plots were more productive.

You are taking your social psychology test in a room of 75 other students. These other students are best described as
co-actors.

A looting mob is a good example of
deindividuation.

Individuals who believe that physician-assisted suicides should be legalized meet to discuss the issue. Research on group interaction suggests that after the discussion the individuals will be
even more convinced that physician-assisted suicides should be legalized.

Research by Lee et al. (2011) indicated that
women are more egalitarian than men.

At your factory job, output was measured at the end of every day by how much the team of workers you belonged to produced. Because of this evaluation procedure, your behavior was characterized by _______; now that a new manager has taken over and each individual worker’s output is measured by a computer, your behavior is now characterized by _______.
social loafing; social facilitation

Triplett conducted one of social psychology’s first laboratory experiments by asking children to wind string on a fishing reel. The results of the study indicated that there was a _______ relationship between the speed at which the children wound the reel and the presence of other children.
positive

You have noticed that when you are at the gym, your exercise routine is not affected by how many other people are there. However, it is affected when other people are watching you exercise. This pattern in your behavior is what social psychologists call
evaluation apprehension.

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