chapters 1, 2, and three

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matter
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anything that has mass and occupies space
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chemistry
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the study and composition of matter and the changes that matter undergoes
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organic chemistry
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the study of all chemicals containing carbon
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inorganic chemistry
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the study of chemicals that, in general do not contain carbon. found mainly in nonliving things like rocks
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biochemistry
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the study of processes that take place in organisms
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analytical chemistry
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the area of study that focuses on the composition of matter
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physical chemistry
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the area that deals with mechanism, the rate, and the energy transfer that occurs when matter undergoes a change
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pure chemistry
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the pursuit of chemical knowledge for its own sake. no immediate practical use for the knowledge
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applied chemistry
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research that is directed towards a practical goal or application
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technology
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the means by which a society provides its members with those things needed and desired
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macroscopic world
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the world of objects that are large enough to see with the unaided eye
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microscopic world
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the world of objects that can only be seen under magnification
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chemists design materials to fit specific needs.
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when chemists develop new materials, whats their goal?
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they play an essential rold in finding way to conserve, produce, and store energy.
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name three ways chemists help meet the demand for energy
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chemistry supplies the medicines, materials, and technology that doctors use to treat their patientts
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how does chemistry help doctors treat patients?
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chemistry supplies the medicines, materials, and technology that doctors use to treat their patientts
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how does chemistry help doctors treat patients?
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chemists help to develop more productive crops and safer more effective ways to protect crops.
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what role do chemists play in agriculture?
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chemists help to identify pollutants and prevent pollution.
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how do chemists help protect the enviorment?
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to study the universe, chemists gather data from afar and analyze matter that is brought back to earth.
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desribe two ways that chemists study the universe.
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biotechnology
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applies science to the production of biological research
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pollutant
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a material found in air, water, or soil that is harmful to humans or other organisms
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alchemists developed the tools and techniques for working with chemicals
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what did alchemists contribute to the development of chemistry?
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lavoiser helped to transform chemistry from a science of observation to the science of measurement that it is today.
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how did lavoisier revolutionize the science of chemistry?
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steps in the scientific method include making observations, testing hypotheses, and developing theories
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name three steps in the scientific method.
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steps in the scientific method include making observations, testing hypotheses, and developing theories
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name three steps in the scientific method.
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when scientists collaborate and communicate, they increase the likelihood of a successful outcome.
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explain why collaboration and communication are important in science.
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observation
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when you use your senses to obtain information you make this
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hypothesis
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a proposed explanation for an observation
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experiment
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a procedure that is used to test a hypothesis
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manipulated or independent variable
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the variable that you change during an experiment
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responding variable
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the variable that is observed during the experiment
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theory
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a well tested explanation for a broad set of observations
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scientific law
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a consice statement that summarizes the results of many observations and experiments
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effective problem solving always involved developing a plan and then implementing that plan
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what are the two general steps in problem solving?
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the steps for solving a numeric word problem are analyze, calculate, and evaluate.
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list the three steps for solving numeric problems
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the steps for solving a conceptual problem are analyze and solve.
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list the two steps for solving conceptual problems
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the steps for solving a conceptual problem are analyze and solve.
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list the two steps for solving conceptual problems
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properties used to describe matter can be classified as extensive or intensive.
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name two categories used to classify properties of matter
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every sample of a given substance that has identical intensive properties because every sample has the same composition
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explain why all samples of a given substance have the same intensive properties.
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every sample of a given substance that has identical intensive properties because every sample has the same composition
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explain why all samples of a given substance have the same intensive properties.
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three states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas
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name three states of matter.
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physical changes can be classified as reversible or irreversible.
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describe the two categories used to classify physical changes
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mass
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a measure of the amount of matter the object contains
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volume
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the measure of the space occupied by the object
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extensive property
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a property that depends on the type of matter in a sample, not the amount of matter.
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substance
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matter that has a uniform and a definite composition
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physical property
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a quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measure withouth changing the substances composition
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physical property
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a quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measure withouth changing the substances composition
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physical change
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some properties of a material change, but the composition of the material does not change.
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physical change
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some properties of a material change, but the composition of the material does not change.
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based on the the distribution of their components , mixtures can classified as heterogeneous or as homogeneous.
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how are mixtures classified?
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differences in physical properties can be used to seperate mixtures.
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what type of properties can be used to seperate mixtures?
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heterogeneous mixture
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a mixture in which the composition is not uniform throughout
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homogeneous mixture
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a mixture in which the composition is uniform throughout
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compounds can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means, but elements cannot.
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how is a compound different from and element?
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compounds can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means, but elements cannot.
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how is a compound different from and element?
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if the compostion of a material is fixed, the material is a substance. if the compostion of a material may vary, the material is a mixture.
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how can you distinguish a substance from a mixture?
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chemists ude chemical symbols to represent elements, and chemical formulas to represent compounds.
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what are chemical symbols and chemical formulas used for?
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chemical symbol
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each element is represented by this, one or two letters, the first letter is capital, the second is lowercase.
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chemical property
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the ability of a substance to undergo a specific change
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during a chemical change the compostion of matter always changes.
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how does a chemical change affect the composition of matter?
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possible clues to chemical change include a transfer of energy, a change in color, the production of gas, or the formation of a precipitate.
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name four possible clues that a chemical change has taken place.
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during any chemical reaction, the mass of the products is always equal to the mass of the reactants.
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in a chemical reaction, how does the mass of the reactants compare with the mass of the products?
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during any chemical reaction, the mass of the products is always equal to the mass of the reactants.
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in a chemical reaction, how does the mass of the reactants compare with the mass of the products?
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chemical reaction
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one or more substances change into one or more new substances
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reactant
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a substance present at the start of the reaction
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product
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a substance produced in the reaction
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precipitate
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a solid that forms and settles out of a liquid mixture
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law of conservation of mass
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states that in any physical change or chemical reaction mass is conserved
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measurements are fundamental to the experimental sciences.for that reason, it is important to be able to make measurements and to decide whether a measurement is correct.
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how do measurements relate to experimental science?
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to evaluate the accuracy of a measurement, the measured value must be compared to the correct value. to evaluate the precision of a measurement, you must compare the values of two or more repated meausrements.
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how are accuracy and precision evaluated?
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measurements must always be reported to the correct number of sig figs because calculated answers often depend on the number of sig figs in the values used in the calculations.
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why must a given measurement always be reported to the correct number if sig figs?
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in general, a calculated answer cannot be more precise than the least precise meausrement from which it was calculated.
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how does the precision of a calculated answer compare to the precision of the measurements used to obtain it?
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in general, a calculated answer cannot be more precise than the least precise meausrement from which it was calculated.
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how does the precision of a calculated answer compare to the precision of the measurements used to obtain it?
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precision
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a measure of how close a series of measurements are to one another
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precision
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a measure of how close a series of measurements are to one another
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accepted values
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the correct value based on reliable references
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experimental value
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the value measured in the lab
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percent error
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the absolute value of the error divided by the accepted value, multiplied by 100%
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significant figures
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include all of the digits that are known, plus a last digit that is estimated, in a measurement
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the five SI units commonly used by chemists are the meter, the kilogram, the kelvin, the second, and the mole.
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which five SI base units are commonly used in chemistry?
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meter, liter, cubic centimeter, gram, degrees celcius, kelvin, joule, calorie.
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which metric units are commonly used to measure length, volume, mass, temperature, and energy?
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international system of units
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a revised version of the metric system
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meter
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in SI, the basic unit of length, or linear measure
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liter
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the volume of a cube that is 10cm along each edge
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kilogram
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the mass of an object is measure in comparison to a standard mass of one of these, which is the basic SI unit of mass
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kilogram
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the mass of an object is measure in comparison to a standard mass of one of these, which is the basic SI unit of mass
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gram
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1/1000 of a kilogram
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weight
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the force that measure the pull on a given mass by gravity
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temperature
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a measure of how hot or cold an object is
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temperature
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a measure of how hot or cold an object is
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celsius scale
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sets the freezing point of water at 0c and the boiling point of water at 100c
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kelvin scale
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the freezing point of water is 273.5 kelvins and the boiling point is 373.15 kelvins
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absolute zero
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the zero point on the kelvin scale
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energy
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the capacity to do work or to produce heat
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joule
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the SI unit of energy
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calorie
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the quantity of heat that raises the temperature of 1g of pure water by 1c

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