Chapter Six Quiz

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Which of the following is a feature of protein nutrition?
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The protein RDA assumes that dietary protein is from a mix of low- and high-quality sources
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Which of the following is characteristic of protein nutrition in vegetarians?
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Most vegetarians eating a variety of foods need not balance essential amino acid intake at each meal
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What is the percent digestibility of most animal proteins?
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90-99
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What amino acid is classified as conditionally essential when dietary intake of phenylalanine is insufficient or the body cannot normally metabolize phenylalanine?
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Tyrosine
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Excessive amounts of homocysteine in the blood are thought to increase the risk for
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heart disease.
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If a person consumes 65 grams of protein and a total of 2700 kcalories per day, approximately what percentage of energy would be derived from protein?
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10
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Which of the following is a feature of the branched-chain amino acids?
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They may be helpful in treatment of advanced liver failure
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When nitrogen taken into the body exceeds nitrogen losses, we say the person is in
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positive nitrogen balance.
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Which of the following is a feature of whey protein?
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It is a waste product of cheese production
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Approximately how many different amino acids are used in the synthesis of body proteins?
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20
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What percentage of dietary protein is hydrolyzed in the mouth?
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What is the most likely explanation for the fatty liver that develops from protein deficiency?
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Inability of the liver to synthesize lipoproteins for fat export
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What is the percentage of total energy derived from protein in a diet containing 50 grams of protein and 2000 kcalories?
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10
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What protein is intimately involved in the formation of scar tissue in wound healing?
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Collagen
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How many grams of nitrogen are contained in a 2500-kcalorie diet that provides 15% of the energy as protein?
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15
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Which of the following would you not expect to see in a person with kwashiorkor?
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Increased physical activity
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Approximately what percentage of a person’s genes are similar to that of an unrelated person?
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99.9
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What is the amino acid pool?
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A mix of essential and nonessential amino acids derived from protein breakdown and dietary protein intake
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Which of the following describes an association between protein intake and kidney function?
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Restricting protein intake may slow the progression of kidney disease
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Which of the following is a feature of kwashiorkor?
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It is typically precipitated in the undernourished child who has an infection
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Which of the following elements is found in certain amino acids?
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Sulfur
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Marasmus occurs most commonly in children of ages
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6-18 months.
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Which of the following is related to the quality of a food protein?
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Essential amino acid balance
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Which of the following is an assumption made in the formulation of the RDA for protein?
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Dietary carbohydrate and fat intakes are adequate
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What is the usual initial therapy for the treatment of kwashiorkor?
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Fluid balance restoration
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Which of the following statements is not characteristic of enzymes?
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They are involved in synthesis reactions only
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The study of how food interacts with genes is known as
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nutrigenomics.
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What amino acid is used to synthesize the neurotransmitter serotonin and the vitamin niacin?
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Tryptophan
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Proteins, because they attract hydrogen ions, can act as
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buffers.
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What is the usual state of nitrogen balance for healthy infants, children, and pregnant women?
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Positive
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All of the following assumptions are made by the committee in setting the RDA for protein except
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the fat content of the diet will be high.
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Which of the following is not a characteristic of marasmus?
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Affects brain development only minimally
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What is a \”limiting\” amino acid in a protein?
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An essential amino acid present in insufficient quantity for body protein synthesis to take place
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Protein-hydrolyzing enzymes are commonly known as
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proteases.
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Your college dormitory roommate, James, told you that he’s had anemia for quite some time and that it’s from having abnormally-shaped hemoglobin. What type of anemia does James have?
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Sickle-cell anemia
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Which of the following is a feature of homocysteine?
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It is increased in the blood of coffee drinkers
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All of the following are known to raise homocysteine levels except
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excess arginine intake.
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The conditions known as acidosis and alkalosis refer to a disruption of the body’s
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pH balance.
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Which of the following is a feature of the protein RDA?
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The recommendations are generous
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At the end of your class presentation on \”Protein-Energy Malnutrition,\” a student asks you to clarify how the rapid onset of protein-energy malnutrition occurs in kwashiorkor. How should you respond?
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It is typically seen in patients who are 1-3 years old due to the sudden change in diet arising from their being weaned from breast milk after the birth of a sibling
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The application of heat or acid to a protein that causes its shape to change is known as
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denaturation.
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What is complementary protein nutrition?
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A strategy that combines plant proteins in the same day to improve the balance of essential amino acids
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All of the following are features of protein in nutrition except
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most of the body’s thousands of proteins have been studied and characterized.
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The body’s amino acid pool consists of
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both essential and nonessential amino acids.
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All of the following describe associations between protein nutrition and the body’s water balance except
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excessive protein losses by the kidney may lead to dehydration.
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In what organ is pepsin active?
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Stomach
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The function of a protease is to
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hydrolyze proteins.
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Which of the following processes is regulated primarily by the buffering action of proteins?
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pH balance
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Which of the following describes a process in protein synthesis?
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The code to make a protein is carried by a strand of messenger RNA
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Approximately what percentage of children worldwide have protein-energy malnutrition?
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25
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What is the fate of excess dietary protein?
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After absorption, the extra amino acids will be rapidly degraded
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Which of the following would describe the state of nitrogen balance of a person who ingested 16 g of food nitrogen and lost 19 g of nitrogen?
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Negative balance
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Tissue swelling that results from water accumulating between cells is known as
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edema.
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When two amino acids are chemically joined together, the resulting structure is called a
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dipeptide.
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After digestion of proteins, what products are absorbed into the circulation?
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Free amino acids, and a few dipeptides and tripeptides
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What is the process by which heat or acidity disrupts the normal shape of a protein chain?
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Denaturation
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Acute protein-energy malnutrition in children is characterized by
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low weight for height.
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Which of the following describes a relationship between protein intake and calcium metabolism?
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Calcium excretion rises with increasing intake of animal-derived proteins
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Jim, a college baseball player, tells you that he has started to take glutamine supplements. How would you advise him?
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Since single amino acids do not occur naturally in foods, they offer no benefit to the body and may even be harmful
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What term describes the illness a child develops when the next child is born?
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Kwashiorkor

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