Chapter one-4

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Chemistry
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The study of matter and the changes it undergoes
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Types of Chemistry

Biochemistry

Organic

Inorganic

Analytical

Physical

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Study of biological chemicals

Carbon based

All other elements

Method of analysis

Theory and Concept

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What does the Scientific Method Require?
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1. Apply logical, organized reasoning to any observation(Observation) (Pattern Recognition)

 

2. Form a Hypothesis (Develop)

 

3. Reject or confirm that hypothesis by experiments (Experimentation)

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Theory
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Not an exact answer, temporary explaination
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Matter
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Anything that takes up space and has mass
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Mass
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How much stuff. The amount of matter something has
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Weight
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Effect of gravity on matter
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Physical Properties
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Qualitative

 

Quantitative

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Qualitative
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Color

Oder

Taste

Feel

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Quatitative
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Density

Melting point

Boiling point

Compressibility

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Chemical Property
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change in the make up
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Atom
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Smallest unit of emlement that has all the properties of an element
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Molecule
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group of atoms

smallest part of a pure substance

(can be made by a single atom, several of the same atoms, or different atoms)

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Diatomic

homotomic

heterotomic

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2 atoms

one type of atom

2 or more types of atoms

 

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Homogeneous

heterogeneous

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Uniform

Non-uniform

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Element

 

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Can’t be simplified by a chemical reaction
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Compound
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combination of 2 or more element in fixed proportion
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Data

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Measurements and observations
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Results
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Data from experiements
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Units
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defines quantities being measured

(all measurments must have units)

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1 tablespoon
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3 teaspoons
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1 cup
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16 tablespoons
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1 pint
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2 cups
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1 quart
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2 pints
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1 gallon
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4 quarts
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1 peck
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2 gallons
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1 bushel
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4 pecks
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1 mile
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5280 ft
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1 ton
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2000 pounds
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1 liter
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1.057 quarts (1.057qt/l)
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1 kilogram
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2.2 pounds (2.2lb/kg)
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1 meter
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1.094 yards (1.094yd/m)
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1 inch
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2.45 cm (2.45cm/in)
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Accuracy
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how close;measurements are to the;true value

(large random error)

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Precision
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how close to each other the measurement are

(large systematic error)

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Systematic Errors

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Random Errors

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errors in one direction (high or low) can be corrected

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Errors in any direction Can’t be fixed

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what do you use to make sure the right number of sig figs in a number that has more sig figs than needed
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use scientific notation
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celsius to fahrenheit
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32 + 9/5 °C
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celsius to Kelvin
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K=°C +273
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Density
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characteristic property of a substance

(mass/volume)

(g/cm^3) or (g/ml)

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specific gravity
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density of a substance/density of reference

unitless

reference material is normally water at 4 degrees celsius

measured by a hydrometer

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Atomic mass

Atomic number

Charge

Number

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Total protons and neutrons

#of protons or eletrons

+ or – values

# of atoms in a formula

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Formula
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lists elemements in compound

tells #of elements

may show how they are connected

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Bohr model
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incorrect but good enough to teach from
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Orbitals
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what electrons move around the nucleus in
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quantum levels
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fixed energy values of orbitals 
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Nucleus
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small part of atom

dense

positive charge

protons and neutrons

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electrons
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surround nucleus

negative charge

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Isotopes
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different mass

different number of neutrons

Ex hydrogen and carbon

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1 mole = ?
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6.022 x 10^23 atoms
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Atomic weight
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average relative mass
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atomic mass unit (amu)
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mass unit used for atoms
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Molecular or formula mass
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total mass for all atoms in a compound
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mass of one unit
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Amu
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mass of one mole of units
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g/mol

(for mass of one unit or this don’t change numbers just units)

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formula mass
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sum of all atomic masses valid for both molecular and ionic compounds
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Molecular mass
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valid for only molecules
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properties of metals
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lustrous, malleable, and ductile

conductors of heat and electricity

soild at room temp except mercury

will lose electron when reacting with non-metals

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properties of no-metals
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poor conductors of heat and electricity

many exist as diatomic molecules

wull gain electrons when reacting with metals but share with each other

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properties of metalloids
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varible chemical properties

act like non-metals when reacting with metals

act like metals when reacting with non-metals

semi-conductors

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family or group

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row or period

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columns

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rows across(a new layer is added to the atom for each row or period in the table)

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Valence Electrons

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Inner electrons

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where most chemical reaction occur

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Not much happens here under normal conditions

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shells electrons

1

2

3

4

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2

8

18

32

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sublevel maxium# of electrons

N types

1 s

2 sp

3 spd

4 spdf

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s=2

p=6

d=10

f=14

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how many orbitals does each sublevel have?
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s=1

p=3

d=5

f=7

each orbital can hole 2 electrons

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Hund’s rule
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electrons won’t pair unless they have to
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Pauli exclusion principle
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when electrons form pairs they spin in opposite directions
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The Aufbau principle
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electrons fill inside out

;exceptions:

4s fills before 3d

5s fills before 4d

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Octet Rule
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atoms are most stable when the outer shell is full or empty (normally 8 electrons except H and He)

atoms gain, lose or share to become stable based on what is easiest

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Atoms do what as you go down the group?
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they get larger (new shell added)
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atoms do what as you go across the period?
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they get smaller (more protons to attract the electrons tighter)
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First ionization energy
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the energy required to remove the first electron from a neutral atom
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Electron Affinity
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Energy released when an atom gains an e;
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Electronegativity
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Realative ability of the atoms to attract e;
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Noble gases are noted for what?
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the sability as mono-atomic molecules
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What is the Lewis Symbol?
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a way to keep tract of electrond around atoms, ions, and molecules
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What is a simple ion
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An atom that has gained or lost electrons to st=atisy the octet rule (normally smallest gain or lost)
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Cations
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positive ion

smaller than atom

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Anion
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Negative ions

Larger than atom

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Chemical Bondin
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force that holds atoms together
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Ionic Bonding
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Attraction of opposites (metal and non-metals)
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Ionic Compounds
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2 elements

overall formula must have no charge

positive element first

subscript given to elements

Don’t exist as individual molecues

like to form crystals

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How to name ionic compounds
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name cation (1st +)

name anion ending in -ide(- charge)

 

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Covalent Bonding
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Sharing of electron by 2 atoms
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Naming Covalent molecules
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name elements in order

use prefixes to indicate #of atoms(expect for the first atom)

use -ide for last element

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What are Polyatomic Ions
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group that tends to stay together
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NH4+
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ammonium
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NO3-
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Nitrate
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SO4 2-
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Sulfate
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OH-
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hydroxide
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O2 2-
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peroxide
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common geometries
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linear

triagonal plane

tetrahedral

pyramidal

Bent

trigonal bipryamidal

trigonal pryamidal

octahedral

square pyramidal

square plane

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Polar covalent bonds
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electrons not shred equally (based on electronegativity
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Dipole-dipole attractions
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when bonds aren’t equally shared the end are polar and attracted to each other
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Van der Waal forces
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temporary diople between molecules

weakest force

also called London Force

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Hydrogen Bonding
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intermolecular attraction

Highly electronegative atom bonded directly to a hydrogen

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what is hydrogen bonding responisble for
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surface tension

viscosity

vapor pressure

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Ionic compound melting and boiling points?

Covalent compounds?

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very high

lower normally

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List the bonds from weakest to strongest
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1.Dispersive forces

2.dipole forces

3.hydrogen bonds

4.inoic bonds

5.metallic bonds

6.covalent bonds

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