Chapter 9 Test Bank

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Which of the following is true with regard to groups?
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A group influences our emotional reactions
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Which of the following is true regarding formal groups?
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They are marked by stipulated behaviors in pursuit of organizational goals.
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An informal group is characterized by the
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Fulfillment of the need for social contact
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Which of the following differentiates between formal and informal groups?
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Formal groups involved clearly defined tasks and roles, while informal groups are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined.
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Out tendency to take personal pride or offense for the accomplishments of a group we are a part of is the territory of the ______ theory.
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Social Identity
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Which of the following is true with regard to the social identity theory?
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It proposes that people have emotional reactions to the failure or success of their group because their self-esteem is tied into the group’s performance.
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_________ is defined as the tendency to see members of the group of which we are a part of as better than other people.
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In group favoritism
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At Milton farms, where a large part of the management comes from the same sociocultural background, many employees of diverse ethical or cultural origins are hired only to ensure legal compliance with laws relating to diversity at the workplace. The company’s day-to-day functioning leaves much to be desired in terms of promoting diversity. Recently, the owner’s cousin was promoted to the post of a branch manager while three suitable candidates hailing from different cultures were blatantly overlooked. This is an example of ________.
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Ingroup favoritism
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Aaron Dias was working on the last shift for the day at All Needs, a retail store owned by an Asian man, when he opened the cash register and stole some money thinking that nobody would witness him stealing. However, one of the customers watched him steal the money and reported it to the manager the next day, and Aaron was terminated. Subsequently, the manager became extremely strict with all his Caucasian employees and was often heard abusing them by saying, \”You guys are all the same.\” This scenario depicts ________.
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Ingroup favoritism
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Similarity is a characteristic under the social identity theory that manifests itself in the ________.
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tendency of people who have greater uniformity in values and characteristics to have greater group identification as well
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In the context of the social identity theory, distinctiveness refers to the ________.
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tendency of ingroup members to notice and emphasize identities that reflect how different they are from other groups
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Status is a characteristic under the social identity theory that reflects the ________.
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tendency of people to link themselves to groups of higher social standing in an attempt to define themselves favorably
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Uncertainty reduction is a dimension of the social identity theory that manifests itself in the ________.
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tendency of people to use the group as a means of understanding who they are and how they fit into the world
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Which of the following represents the second stage in the five-stage group development model?
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storming
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Which of the following stages of the five-stage group development model is characterized by a great deal of uncertainty about the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership?
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forming
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The second stage of the five-stage group development model is characterized by ________.
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intragroup conflict within the group
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By the end of the stage of ________, a relatively clear hierarchy of leadership within the group is established.
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storming
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During the third stage of group development, ________.
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the group demonstrates cohesiveness
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Which of the following statements is true regarding the norming stage of group development?
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During this stage, the group develops a common set of expectations of what defines correct member behavior.
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When the group energy is focused on the task at hand and the group is fully functional, it is said to be in the stage of ________.
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performing
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Which of the following statements is most likely to be true regarding the performing stage?
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For permanent work groups, performing is the last stage in development.
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Which of the following is true with regard to the five-stage group development model?
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A positive social focus may aid a group in reaching the performing stage more rapidly.
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Which of the following statements is true with regard to the punctuated-equilibrium model of group development?
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It characterizes groups as exhibiting long periods of inertia interspersed with brief revolutionary changes.
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Tabby Tolman is a project coordinator at Tristar Solutions. Whenever a new project comes her way, she holds a project meeting and follows it up with repeated meetings to address any concerns the team members may have and to monitor their progress. However, with the peak of the business season arriving, she has been holding just one project initiation meeting for every project to save on time. She has become increasingly worried about the team’s progress with no inputs coming from the members, and she has had no time to check with them. With two weeks left to go for a high priority project of a month’s duration, she has now begun to see some work coming through and is relieved. This development reflects that the group is at the stage of ________.
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transition following the halfway mark in the timeline
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The first phase of group development for temporary groups involves ________.
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the determination of the group’s direction
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The determination of the behavioral patterns and assumptions through which the group approaches the project is a function of the ________ phase in the punctuated-equilibrium model.
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first meeting
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Which of the following represents the major determinants of group development and functioning as depicted by the punctuated-equilibrium model?
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deadlines and time constraints
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Role perception is defined as ________.
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our view of how we are supposed to act in a given situation
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Janice Cooper has recently joined a hospital as a part of the internship program prescribed by the nursing school she attends. Janice, who was inspired to take up this profession by the story of Florence Nightingale, has very strong ideals about how she should behave as a nurse. She feels that as a nurse she must be gentle, pleasant, and caring at all times so she can serve her patients well, and she often goes to great lengths as an intern by putting in extra hours at the hospital and so on. The scenario reflects Janice’s ________.
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role perception
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Role ________ is defined as the way others believe you should act in a given context.
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expectation
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Most people assume that police officers should behave in a lawful manner, refrain from demonstrating favoritism to any particular group, and do their best to uphold the law. Which of the following terms best represents these beliefs?
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role expectation
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When ________, the result is role conflict.
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compliance with one role requirement may make it difficult to comply with another
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Michael is devout and very active in his church. He is also a very dedicated employee. His manager offers him a promotion, but the new role will require him to work Sundays. Michael would like the promotion but realizes that it would force him to miss some church activities. In this situation, Michael is most likely to experience ________.
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role conflict
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Which of the following represents the acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members?
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norms
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Which of the following is an example of performance norms?
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the manner in which a job must be done
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The ________ norms dictate behavior such as with whom group members eat lunch and friendships on and off the job.
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social arrangement
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A local government work crew cleans up parks and other public spaces. In this crew, the dirtiest jobs are generally given to the newest members, while the more senior members of the crew tend to do little except draw their pay. Which of the following classes of norms encompasses arrangements like this?
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resource allocation norms
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________ refers to the adjustment of one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group.
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Conformity
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The important groups to which an individual belongs or hopes to belong are known as ________ groups.
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reference
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Jonas Wilkes has struggled for many years with tight finances at home. Throughout school and college, he worked really hard, earned the best grades, and prepared himself for a better life. By a better life, he meant a house in the uptown Wellington Road and a membership in the Diamond District Club where he envisions himself playing golf on weekends. The residents of Wellington Road and the members of Diamond District Club serve as a ________ for him.
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reference group
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Which of the following terms best represents voluntary actions that violate significant organizational norms and, in doing so, threaten the well-being of the organization or its members?
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deviant workplace behavior
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Which of the following is true with regard to deviant workplace behavior?
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Widespread deviant workplace behavior depends on the accepted norms of the group.
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Status refers to the ________.
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socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others
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According to status characteristics theory, which of the following factors does not determine status?
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ability to conform to group norms
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Which of the following statements is true regarding the effect of status on conformity pressure?
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People in high-status jobs have especially negative reactions to social pressure exerted by people in low-status jobs
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Which of the following statements is true regarding the effect that size of the group has on the performance of the group?
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Compared to smaller groups, larger groups are better at problem solving.
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Which of the following terms indicates the tendency of individuals to spend less effort when working collectively?
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social loafing
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When faced with a number of tight deadlines, Mandy Moore often delegates work collectively. Recently she chose some fairly experienced employees to work on a high-priority project. She was heartened to see that the selected group of employees was having numerous meetings and working hard. However, when she went to check on their progress at the halfway mark in the project schedule, she was shocked to see how little the team had done in the past three weeks. This scenario reflects ________.
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social loafing
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Which of the following is a contributing factor with regard to social loafing?
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dispersion of responsibility
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Which of the following is an effective means of countering social loafing?
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ensuring that individual contributions to the group’s outcome are identified
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Which of the following is true with regard to social loafing?
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Social loafing is witnessed less in collectivist cultures where people take pride in group performance.
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ICE is a non-profit organization that runs awareness campaigns and research programs that provide data to initiate the process of legislative changes on various aspects of the environment like forest cover, nuclear fuel, endangered species and others. The ICE operates through networks of grass-root level researchers who are grouped into flexible project teams whose roles and duties change with each new project. The ICE believes its employees to be like family, and an informal environment pervades its functioning without any compromises being made in the efficiency. Recently, the project manager of the rainwater harvesting pilot project in the suburbs has been informed of two delays in the project. When the third extension request came to him, he looked into the matter by speaking individually with the five team members. Which of the following complaints by the team members, if true, would indicate the presence of social loafing in the team?
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Two of the most experienced employees on the team reported having to shoulder a disproportionate amount of the current workload and asked for an internal transfer.
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________ refers to the degree to which members are attracted to each other and motivated to stay in the group.
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Cohesiveness
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Which of the following statements is true regarding the effect of group cohesiveness and performance norms on group productivity?
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When both cohesiveness and performance norms are high, productivity will be high.
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________ is defined as the extent to which members of a group are similar to, or different from, one another.
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Diversity
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Which of the following is an advantage of group decision making when compared to individual decision making?
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increased diversity of views
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When ________ is of importance in decision making, group decisions are preferred to individual decisions.
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acceptance of solution
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When compared to individual decision making, group decision making has a disadvantage in the area of ________.
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speed
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________ is defined as a phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action.
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Groupthink
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Sonia Soans is corporate trainer. One of her favorite ways to start a training program is to present a case study and encourage members to think of the case in depth and discuss it amongst each other. Using the results of the activity, she understands the baseline measures of the group’s functioning. During one of her recent sessions, she observed that the group came to a consensus very quickly. However, when asked to present their views, the team members were not too confident and appeared to be under an illusion of unanimity. From this scenario, we can say that this group experienced ________.
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groupthink
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Which of the following steps can be taken by a manager to minimize groupthink?
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seek input from employees before the group leader presents his or her opinions
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In discussing a given set of alternatives and arriving at a solution, group members tend to exaggerate the initial positions they hold. This phenomenon is called ________.
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groupshift
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Groupshift is seen when ________.
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group members tend to exaggerate the initial positions they hold when discussing a given set of alternatives and arriving at a solution
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The HR department at Bailey Services is considering offering telecommuting as an option to some experienced employees. At a meeting to formalize the move, the heads of the different departments met with Laura Watson, the HR manager. Laura, who thought this meeting would be a short one, was proven wrong when all the members, who had previously agreed that telecommuting would work in their company, began coming up with divergent views. By the end, two divisions claimed they had major concerns about allowing employees to telecommute, and those in favor of it were equally vocal. This scenario depicts the operation of ________.
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groupshift
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Joe Sullivan and Mark Holland, members of the top management at EuAir, a European airlines, were preparing for a meeting to discuss strategies to combat the recent rise in fuel prices. Before the meeting began, Joe and Mark were discussing how oil prices significantly impact the health of the world economy. Joe spoke of how higher oil prices since 1999, partly the result of OPEC supply management policies, contributed to the global economic downturn in 2000-2001. Mark agreed but added that the right kind of strategy could help them overcome this challenge, and that they could even use the situation to hike fares and generate additional revenues. Which of the following statements, if true, would denote the occurrence of groupshift in Mark’s opinions during the meeting?
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Mark proposed that the prices be hiked and additional customer service measures be included so costumers have the best experience flying with EuAir.
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Joe Sullivan and Mark Holland, members of the top management at EuAir, a European airlines, were preparing for a meeting to discuss strategies to combat the recent rise in fuel prices. Before the meeting began, Joe and Mark were discussing how oil prices significantly impact the health of the world economy. Joe spoke of how higher oil prices since 1999, partly the result of OPEC supply management policies, contributed to the global economic downturn in 2000-2001. Mark agreed but added that the right kind of strategy could help them overcome this challenge, and that they could even use the situation to hike fares and generate additional revenues. Which of the following statements, if true, would weaken the argument that Mark experienced groupshift in the meeting?
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Mark stated that the company should increase operations but at lower fares so they can regain control over the market share.
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Joe Sullivan and Mark Holland, members of the top management at EuAir, an European airlines, were preparing for a meeting to discuss strategies to combat the recent rise in fuel prices. Before the meeting began, Joe and Mark were discussing how oil prices significantly impact the health of the world economy. Joe spoke of how higher oil prices since 1999, partly the result of OPEC supply management policies, contributed to the global economic downturn in 2000-2001. Mark agreed but added that the right kind of strategy could help them overcome this challenge, and that they could even use the situation to hike fares and generate additional revenues. Which of the following statements, if true, would denote the occurrence of groupshift in Joe’s opinions during the meeting?
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Joe determined that the best strategy would be to slash prices and minimize all fringes that are used for customer service.
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Joe Sullivan and Mark Holland, members of the top management at EuAir, a European airline, were preparing for a meeting to discuss strategies to combat the recent rise in fuel prices. Before the meeting began, Joe and Mark were discussing how oil prices significantly impact the health of the world economy. Joe spoke of how higher oil prices since 1999, partly the result of OPEC supply management policies, contributed to the global economic downturn in 2000-2001. Mark agreed but added that the right kind of strategy could help them overcome this challenge, and that they could even use the situation to hike fares and generate additional revenues. Which of the following statements, if true, would weaken the argument that Joe experienced groupshift during the meeting?
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Joe suggested adding a fuel surcharge to all tickets for commercial flights with immediate effect.
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Groupthink is most commonly seen in the group decision-making approach using ________.
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interacting groups
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Like many other marketing strategy specialists, Mark Fritz relies heavily on creativity and originality. Members of his team are selected on the basis of their ability to think divergently, and Mark often conducts activities to ensure that this ability is developed. For instance, before any new project, Mark invites his team to sit together and churn out possible ideas about the new product, its theme, and ways in which it can be projected best in the market. These sessions usually provide him with a bank of potential ideas from which the team selects some strong concepts and develops them into a campaign. To encourage freedom in these sessions, Mark has a no-evaluation policy. This is an example of ________.
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brainstorming
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Which of the following statements is true regarding brainstorming?
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Brainstorming can overcome the pressures for conformity.
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A group decision-making method in which individual members meet face-to-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion is the ________ technique.
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nominal groups
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For seven years, Bonnie Patterson has been a manager at Wayne and Watson, a legal consultancy firm. A good part of her workday involves holding meetings, and she likes to follow a well-defined schedule. For this reason, members of her team receive the agenda at the beginning of the meeting, followed by some time to contemplate the issue at hand individually. Subsequently, the team members present their ideas one after the other, the group discusses them together, and lastly, a ranking is done to choose the most favored idea. This represents the ________ approach of group decision making.
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nominal group
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Hubert Gray needs an instruction manual developed for his new product. This is the last step of the project and he has severe budget constraints. He needs a small team of technical writers to work together closely to write the manual on fairly short notice. He needs them to communicate ideas quickly, creatively, and affordably. Which of the following group techniques should Hubert consider?
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interacting and brainstorming

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