Chapter 9 Section 2 – Industrialization: Case Study-Manchester

question

How did the Industrial Revolution affect the lives of the people involved?
answer

GOOD: -More jobs -Higher wages -People able to afford goods BAD: -Unhealthy working conditions -Pollution -Child Labor -Class tensions between the working and middle class
question

What happened after the 1800s?
answer

People began to move towards cities to find better job opportunities. This period of city building and movement of people to cities is called urbanization.
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Why were factories developed in clusters?
answer

Entrepreneurs built them near sources of energy.
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What happened to England because of rapid growing?
answer

-No development plan -No sanitary/building codes -Lacked adequate housing -Lacked Education -Lacked police protection Poor living conditions lead to epidemics of deadly diseases (Cholera)
question

In 1842 what was the average life span for the working class city?
answer

17 years old.
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What of factory owners do to increase production?
answer

Kept machines running for as long as possible, forcing workers to long shifts.
question

Why did industries pose new dangers for workers?
answer

-Factories seldom lit/clean -Machines injured workers -No government program to provide aid in case of injury -Unhealthy working environment
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Why were many women and children hired?
answer

They were the cheapest form of labor
question

Which class benefited the most from the Industrial Revolution?
answer

The middle class.
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How did the middle class transform the social structure of Great Britain?
answer

Some middle class citizens were wealthier than or as wealthy as landlords and aristocrats, which caused the middle class to gain social and political power.
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What was the social distinction that divided the two wealthy classes (Middle and Upper classes)?
answer

Landowners looked down on those who made their fortune in the \”vulgar\” business world.
question

During the years 1800-1850 what happened to the working class/ laborers?
answer

They saw little to no improvement in both their work and living conditions Machines began replacing them
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How did some of the Working Class react to the machines that replacing them?
answer

They smashed the machines. Resulted in the Luddites.
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Who were the Luddites?
answer

A group of workers who attacked whole factories in northern England beginning in the 1811, destroying the laborsaving machinery.
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What were the positive effects of the Industrial Revolution?
answer

1. Created jobs for workers 2. Contributed to the wealth of the nation 3. Fostered technological progress and invention 4. Increased the production of goods 5. Raised the standard of living; healthier diets, better housing, expanded educational opportunities. 6. Provided the hope of improvement in people’s lives.
question

What were the long term effects of the Industrial Revolution?
answer

Effects are still evident today; people today can afford consumer good that were once luxuries. Living+Working conditions have improved.
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What were the unique advantages that made Manchester the leading example of the new industrial city?
answer

– Access to water power – Available labor from nearby country side -Outlet to the sea at Liverpool
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How did Manchester show both the best and the worst of the Industrial Revolution?
answer

BAD: – Unplanned growth made it a unhealthy place for the poor people who worked and lived there GOOD: – Wealth flowed into the factories
question

How did mill owners earn high profits?
answer

Workers labored under terrible conditions. The workers worked many hours with a half hour break for lunch and an hour break for dinner for 6 days a week.
question

What was the Factory Act of 1819?
answer

The act restricted the working age and hours. Prior to the Factory Act Britain exerted little control over child labor.
question

What was the environmental effect of having a concentrated area for industries?
answer

It polluted the surrounding area.

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