Chapter 9 Notes- Writing Negative Messages

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Describe successful strategies for sending negative messages on routine business
matters
-time mgmt; focus on important relationships/requests
-if matter closed, don’t imply it’s still open by using phrases like “Let me think about it and get back to you” as a way to delay saying no
-offer alternative ideas if possible, particularly if relatinship is important
-don’t imply that other assistance/other info might be available if it isn’t

List the important points to consider when conveying negative organizational news
-match approach to situation
-consider unique needs of each group
-give each audience enough time to react as needed
-give yourself enough time to plan/manage a response
-look for positive angles, but don’t exude false optimism
-seek expert advice if you’re not sure of the situation

Describe successful strategies for sending negative employment-related messages when refusing requests for employee references and recommendations?
-don’t feel like you have to write a recommendation letter if you don’t feel like it’s necessary
-take diplomatic approach to minimize hurt feelings
-compliment reader’s accomplishments
-suggest alternatives, if avaialable
-use options available to you on social networks, like ignoring a request from someone you don’t know or writing a recommentaiton on a single positive attribute

when planning your negative message, what should you do?
-analyze situation
-gather info
-select medium
-get organized

when writing your negative message, what should you do?
-adapt to the audience
-compose the message

when completing your negative message, what should you do?
-revise
-produce
-proofread
-distribute

what are all of the planning considerations needed when choosing if you should use the direct or indirect approach for writing a negative message?
-audience reaction- emotional outbursts
-audience preferences- do they prefer sugarcoating?
-how important is the news?
-working relationship
-getting attention
-organizational preferences

buffer
what you say before giving the bad news out

What should you also consider when writing negative messages?
-alternative approaches
-establish credibility- reasons because of sales drop, etc.
-audience characteristics
-communication etiquette
-respect audience

What characteristics must you have when opening with a buffer (what you say before giving the bad news out)
-respectful
-relevant
-neutral
-transitional

what are some different types of buffers (what you say before giving the bad news out)?
-agreement
-appreciation
-good news

when should you use the agreement buffer (what you say before giving the bad news out)?
finding a point at which you and the reader share similar views

name one example of an agreement buffer?
we both know that change is hard

when should you use the appreciation buffer?
when expressing sincere thanks for receiving something

name one example of an appreciation buffer?
Your scholarship for four years of free tuition at a university arrived yesterday. Thank you.

when should you use the good news buffer (what you say before giving the bad news out)?
when starting with your part of the message that is favorable

name one example of a good news buffer?
Since most of you drive electric cars, it won’t be as big of a deal for you to have to drive 30 miles north to a Michaels store

How can you make buffer statements effective?
-establish common ground with reader,
-validate concerns prompting original request without promising positive answer

name four different ways to clearly state the bad news?
-no misleading
-minimum space to be used
-subordinate bad news in compound or complex sentences
-put bad news in the middle of a paragraph, or use parenthical expressions

How do you clearly state the bad news?
Instead of saying “I must refuse your request,” use “I will be out of town the day you need me.”

when should you use the direct approach?
when the bad news involves low emotional involvement

when should you use the indirect approach?
when the bad news involves high emotional involvement

name one good example of when you should use the direct approach?
free coffee stations are being removed from each floor in the building.

how should you use the direct approach?
back the negative up with the positive

name one good example of when you should use the indirect approach?
If the business is being moved 30 miles north from our current location

how do you use the indirect approach?
sugarcoat the bad news

how do you state the reasons and additional info behind stating the bad news?
by determining whether you would use the:
-direct approach
-indirect approach, or
-face to face communication

when completing your bad news message, you must choose what, and name an example of what you much choose?
positive words. e.g. Instead of saying “Your request doesn’t make any sense,” say “Please clarify your request.”

how do you close bad news messages?
on a respectful note

How do you close bad news messages on a polite note?
look to the future, build goodwill, avoid negativity, maintain correspondance, remain optimistic, practice sincerity, then suggest action

how do you maintain high standards of ethics and etiquette in a bad news message?
-laws and regulations
-careful of apologizing
-creates guilt
-human impact
-emotional reactions

name three challenges associated with negative business messages?
-distort messages
-have it make sense
-whistleblowing
-tattling- telling on someone
-self-control
-control yourself

whistleblowing
this involves telling on someone

name three organizational business messages?
-routine business
-expect them to respect, favor respect
-social media
-monitor it
-address it publically
-crisis communication
-big oil spill
-mass shooting
-who’s your point person in crisis? Have a plan.

routine business message
this involves expecting them to respect and favor respect

social media message
monitor them, address them publically

crisis communication message
this involves having a plan to determine who’s your point person in crisis

what should you do when refusing routine requests?
-select approach
-time mgmt
-be polite, but firm
-consider alternatives
-don’t imply for additional help

how do you handle bad news about transactions if customer’s expectations have been set?
-consider apology
-use communication goals to:
-modify expectations
-resolve the situation
-repair the relationship

how do you handle bad news about transactions of customer’s expectations have not been set?
-avoid apology
-use communication goals to:
-modify expectations
-resolve the situation
-repair the relationship

when refusing claims and requests for adjustment, what are some things to employ?
-courtesy and tact
-indirect approach
-understanding
-explanation/refusal

when refusing claims and requests for adjustment, what are some things to avoid?
-accepting blame
-making accusations
-emotional response
-defaming others

defame
to damage the good reputation of someone

when sending negative organizational news, what are the two things to consider?
-normal circumstances
-crisis communication

sometimes, you can/can’t plan/announce what?
crisis communication

what should you do when communicating in a crisis?
-have crisis mgmt plan
-operational procedures
-tasks/responsiblilities
-speak for company
-contact key executives
-identify media outlets

name four different types of negative employment messages?
-recommendations
-job applications
-performance reviews
-termination

when would a job application be a negative employment message?
when it’s rejected

what should you use for termination?
face-to-face medium

when you refuse requests for employee references and recommendation letters, how should you format the message?
-indirect approach
-main idea
-alternative considerations
-positive note

what happens when social network recommendation requests are refused?
-increase in views
-greater quantity
-informal requests choose response
-brief statement ok

what happens when traditional requests are refused?
-limited recipients
-reduced quantity
-formal
-complete letter expected

limited recipients in traditional requests should be taken what?
more seriously

when rejecting job applications, what should you do?
-personalize the message
-open with appreciation
-convey negative news politely
-avoid expectation rejections
-don’t make promises you can’t keep
-express sincere wishes

why can’t you make promises you can’t keep when rejecting job applications?
you can get in legal trouble for it

how do you give out a negative performance review to improve requirements?
-clarify job requirements
-provide feedback
-develop action plan

when developing an action plan in a negative performance review, what should you do?
-resolve problem, and
-make it unbiased and objective

what should you also consider when improving performance in a negative performance review?
-organizational values, and
-organizational standards

Describe successful strategies for sending negative employment-related messages when rejecting job applicants?
-if possible, respond to all applications, even if you use only a form message to acknowledge receipt
-if you use the direct approach, take care to avoid being blunt/cold
-if you use the indirect approach, don’t mislead the reader in buffer (what you say before giving the bad news out)/delay the bad news for more than a sentence or two
-avoid explaining why the applicant was rejected
-suggest alternatives if possible

describe successful strategies for sending negative employment-related messages when giving negative performance reviews?
-document performance problems throughout the yr
-evaluate all employees consistently
-keep job descriptions up to date as employee responsibilities change
-maintain an objective/unbiased tone
-use nonjudgmental language
-focus on problem resolution
-make sure negative feedback is documented and shared with emploee
-don’t avoid confrontations by withholding negative feedback
-ask employee for commitment to improve

describe successful strategies for sending negative employment-related messages when terminating employment?
-state reasons accurately and make sure they’re objectively verifable
-avoid statements that might expose company to a wrongful termination lawsuit
-consult company lawyers to clarify all terms of the separation
-deliver letter in person if possible
-end relationship on terms as positive as possible.

when should you use face-to-face communication for bad news?
when the bad news involves high stakes (high share of investment in the business going away)

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