Chapter 9 nervous system

Flashcard maker : Will Walter
Arbor vitae
Looks like a tree
Lateral ventricle
Space for fluid between
Optic charisma
Shaped like an X
Superior colliculi
Looks like a butt
Dura mater
Leathery covering over the entire brain
Cerebellum
Cauliflower; the area toward the back of the brain
Pineal Gland
Behind the colliculi, looks like a little nub
Thalamus
Large area under the corpus calosum
Pons
The rounded part of the brain stem
Olfactory bulb
Contains nerves, connects to the far front of the brain
Thalamus (structure)
Lateral ventricle (structure)
Corpus callosum (structure)
Gryus
Sulcus
Hypothalamus
Olfactory bulb
Optic chaisma
Chaisma
Infundibulum
Fornix
Midbrain
Pons
Medulla
Spinal cord
Cerebellum
Arbor vitae
Pineal body
Third ventricle
Frontal lobe (structure)
Parietal lobe (structure)
Occipital lobe (structure)
Temporal lobe (structure)
Transverse
The worm like ridges on the surface of the brain are
Gyri
What enlargement supplies nerves to the lower limbs?
Lumbar
What enlargement supplies nerves to shoulders?
Cervical
What tracts within the spinal cord carry motor impulses to the muscles?
Descending
What controls higher mental activities, such as learning and making decisions?
Cerebrum
What controls coordination, balance, and equilibrium?
Cerebellum
What tracts within the spinal cord carry sensory impulses to the brain?
Ascending
Fluid filled cavities?
Ventricles
What controls emotional experiences?
Limbic
What part Of the body plays a major role in memory?
Hippocampus
Part of the diecephalon and controls basic functions such as body temperature and hunger?
Hypothalamus
Do Nodes of Ranvier occur between adjacent neurons?
No
The subarachnoid space within the meninges
Contains cerebrospinal fluid
Ischemic cell change is caused by lack of
Oxygen
The drug caffeine stimulates the activity of the nervous system by
Lowering thresholds at synapses
The part of the brain that functions to coordinate voluntary muscle movements is the
Cerebellum
The cytoplasmic extensions that provide the main receptive surcease for neurons are
Dendrites
Within the meninges, cerebrospinal fluid occupies the
Subarachnoid space
In the central nervous system myelin is formed by
Oligodendrocytes
During an action potential, repolarization occurs as a result of
Potassium ions diffusing to the outside of the cell membrane.
Drugs that decrease membrane permeability to sodium
Are used as local anesthetics, prevent nerve impulses from passing, causing loss into perception of pain
The cell within the nervous system that fill spaces and give support to neurons are called
neurological cells
A single neuron pool receiving impulses from two or more fibers makes it possible for the neuron to summate impulses from different sources, thus exhibiting
Summation
The motor functions of the nervous system that are consciously controlled are part of the _____ nervous system
Somatic
Destruction or removal of a neurotransmitter prevents continuous stimulation of the
Postsynaptic
Convergence is when a single impulse within a neuron pool recieves impulses from how many fibers?
two or more
The PNS does not include
Ascending and descending
Ventral root (structure)
Dorsal root (structure)
Dorsal root ganglion (structure)
Arachnoid mater
Epidural space
Foramen magnum
Cervical enlargement
Vertebral canal
Lumbar enlargement
within the meninges cerebrospinal fluid is produced in the
Choroid plexuses within the ventricles.
what is the function of neurotransmitters?
To transmit nerve impulses across synapses.
Which of the following are involved in Salvatore conduction?
Nodes of Ranvier and mylinated neurons
a neuron that ends at a synapse is___ a neuron that begins at a synapse
Presynaptic, Afferent
When an action potential reaches the end of a neuron it triggers the release of
neurotransmitters
The automatic, subconscious responses to stimuli that help maintain homeostasis are
Reflective
When nerve cells are not conducting impulses
The outside of the membrane is slightly more positive than the negative
Neurotransmitters that decrease membrane permeability to sodium ions ___ the chances that it will reach threshold , and thus___
Decrease, inhibitory
Parietal Lobe
sensory strip location, perception, touch(pain & temperature), ability to draw, reading and writing, calculations.
Temporal Lobe
hearing, long term memory, verbal and written recognition memory, receptive memory, music, initiation of verbal.
Occipital Lobe
perception, vision
Autonomic
Viscera; heart stomach, intestines
Sympathetic
Fight or flight
Cholinergic fibers
secrete acetylcholine
When is the parasympathetic system dominant over the body?
in sleep and relaxation
Adrenergic fibers
produce norepinephrine neurotransmitter; beta and alpha receptors
True or false oligodendrocytes produce myelin sheaths
False
Dendrites release neurotransmitters into the extracellular space during nerve impulse transmissions.
False
Cell bodies of sensory neurons are always located in ganglia lying outside the central nervous system
True
A sensory neuron carries stimuli from the central nervous system to the effector
False
Grey matter contains collections of unmylienated fibers and cell bodies in the central nervous system
True
The all or none response phenomenon as applied to nerve conduction states that the whole nerve cell must be stimulated for conduction to take place
False
Depolarization of neurons results from the entry of sodium ions into the cell
True
The withdrawal, or flexor, reflex is one of the only voluntary reflexes
False
A polarized neuron has fewer positive ions inside in comparison to the outside of the neuron
True
Sensory/Afferent neurons transmit nerve impulses from effector sites to
The central nervous system (brain and spinal cord)
Fibers that carry information from the skin, joints, and skeletal muscles to the central nervous system are
Somatic sensory
What neurological cell forms the myelin sheath in the central nervous system
oligodendrocytes
The Schwann cell forms a myelin sheath around the
Nodes of Ranvier
The neuron processes that normally receive incoming stimuli are called
Dendrites
A major role of the interneuron is to
connect motor and sensory neurons in their pathways
Neurons with several processes branching off the body, such a motor neurons and interneurons, are structurally classified as
Multipolar
The two major functional properties of neurons are
irritability and conductivity
Vagus function
conduct impulses from the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, and viscera of the thorax and abdomen. conduct impulses to muscles associated with speech and swallowing; autonomic motor fibers conduct impulses to the viscera of the thorax and abdomen
Facial nerve function
Facial expressions, supplies information about touch on face and senses of tongue in mouth
Trochlear function
moves the eyes
Vestibulocochlear function
Equilibrium & hearing
Olfactory function
smell
Trigeminal function
impulses from the surface of the eyes, tear glands, scalp, forehead, and upper eyelids. impulses to muscles of mastication and to muscles in the floor of the mouth.
Autonomic system
controls involuntary action, such as digesting food
Somatic system
responsible for transmission of chemical and electrical signals to and from skeletal muscles
Impulse conduction is the fastest in neurons that are
Myelinated
Bipolar neurons are commonly
More abundant in adults than children
During resting state, a neuron is
Polarized with sodium ions outside the cell and potassium ions inside the cell
Immediately after an action potential is propagated, which one of the ions rapidly diffuses out of the cell into the tissue fluid
potassium
Nerve impulse transmissions occurring along mylienated neurons are called
salatory conduction
The diffusion of potassium ions out of a neuron causes it to experience
depolarization

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