CHAPTER 9 isys

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legacy system
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an old system that is fast approaching or beyond its useful life within an organization
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conversion
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the process of transferring information from a legacy system to a new system
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software customization
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modifies software to meet specific user or business requirements
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off the shelf application software
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supports general business processes and does not require any specific software customization to meet the organizations needs
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systems development life style (SDLC)
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the overall process for developing information systems, from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance
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planning
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establishes a high level plan of the intended project and determines project goals
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change agent
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a person or event that is the catalyst for implementing major changes for a system to meet business changes
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brainstorming
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a technique for generating ideas by encouraging participants to offer as many ideas as possible in a short period without analysis until all ideas have been exhausted
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project
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temporary activity a company undertakes to create a unique project, service, or result
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project managment
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the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements
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project manager
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an individual who is an expert in project planning and management, defines and develops the project plan, and tracks the plan to make sure the project is completed on time and on budget
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project scope
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describes the business need (problem the project will solve) and the justification, requirements, and current boundaries for the project
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project plan
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formal, approved document that manages and controls the entire project
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analysis
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the firm analyzes its end user business requirements and refines the project goals into defined functions and operations of the intended system
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business requirements
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the specific business requests the system has to meet to be successful (could be how the CRM has to track the customers)
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requirements management
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the process of managing changes to business requirements throughout the project
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requirements definition document
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prioritizes all of the business requirements by order of importance to the company
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sign off
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the users actual signatures saying they recognize all the business requirements
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design
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establishes descriptions of the desired features and operations of the system (screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudo code, etc)
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development
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takes all the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforms them into the actual system
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software engineering
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a disciplined approach for constructing info systems through the use of common methods, techniques, or tools
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computer aided software engineering (CASE)
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tools that software engineers use to provide automated support for the development of the system
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control objects for information and related technology (COBIT)
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a set of practices that helps an organization to maximize the benefits of an information system while at the same time establishing appropriate controls to ensure minimum errors
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scripting language
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a programming method that provides for interactive modules to a website
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object oriented languages
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group data and corresponding processes into objects
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fourth generation languages (4GL)
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programming languages that look similar to human languages
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testing phase
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brings all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to eliminate errors and bugs and verify that the system meets all the business requirements defined in the analysis phase
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bugs
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defects in the code of an information system
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test conditions
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detail the steps the system must perform along with the expected result of each step
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implementation
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the organization places the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with it
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user documentation
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created during implementation, highlights how to use the system and how to troubleshoot problems and issues
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online training
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runs over the internet or on a CD or DVD, employees can complete training at own time on own pace (implementation)
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workshop training
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implementation phase, held in classroom environment
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help desk
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one of the best ways to support users, group of people to answer questions
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maintenence
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the organization performs changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet business goals
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corrective maintenance
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makes system changes to repair design flaws, coding errors, or implementation issues
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preventative maintenance
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makes system changes to reduce the chance of future system failure
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methodology
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a set of policies, procedures, standards, processes, practices, tools, techniques, and tasks that people apply to technological and management challanefes
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waterfall methodology
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a sequence of phases in which the output of each phase becomes the input for the next
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prototyping
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modern design approach where the designers and systems use an iterative approach to building the system
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discovery prototyping
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builds a small scale representation or working model of the system to ensure it meets user and business requirements
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iterative development
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series of tiny projects
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agile methodologies
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aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of useful software components developed by an iterative process using bare minimum requirements
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rapid app development methodology (RAD)
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emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system, to accelerate the systems development process
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extreme programming methodology (XP)
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like other agile methods, breaks a project into 4 phases and developers cannot continue to the next phase until the previous phase is complete
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rational unified process methodology (RUP)
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owned by IBM, provides a framework for breaking down the development of software into 4 gates, each consisting of executable iterations of the software in development
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scrum methodology
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small teams produce small pieces of software using a series of sprints or 30 day intervals to achieve an appointed goal
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tangible benefits
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easy to quantify and typically measured to determine the success or failure of a project
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intangible benefits
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difficult to quantify or measure
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feasibility
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the measure of the tangible and intangible benefits of an information system
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the triple constraint
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time cost scope, the framework for evaluating these competing demands
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SMART criteria
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specific, measurable, agreed upon, realistic, time frame
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kill switch
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a trigger that enables a project manager to close the project before completion
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PERTT chart (program evaluation and review technique)
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a graphical network model that depicts a projects tasks and the relationships between them
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dependancy
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a logical relationship that exists between project tasks or between a project task and a milestone
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critical path
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estimates the shortest path through the project ensuring all critical tasks are completed from start to finish indicated by a red line in a pert chart
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gantt chart
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simple bar chart that lists project tasks vertically against the projects time frame listed horizontally
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insourcing (in house development)
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uses professional expertise within an organization to develop and maintain its information technology systems
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out sourcing
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an arrangement by which one org provides a service or services for another organization that chooses not to perform them in house
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onshore outsourcing
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engaging another company within the same country
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nearshore outsourcing
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contracting an outsourcing arrangement with a company in a nearby country. often this country will share a border with the native country.
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offshore outsourcing
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using organizations from developing countries to write code and develop systems. country is geographically far away

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