Chapter 8 Practice Quiz [EXTRA]

In a _______ design, one group of people is followed and assessed at different times as the group ages.
a. longitudinal
b. cross-sectional
c. cross-sequential
d. cross-longitudinal
a. longitudinal

The cognitive and social changes students go through because they are born and grow up in an age of smartphones would be referred to as a(n)
a. experimental group.
b. control group.
c. dominance effect.
d. cohort effect.
d. cohort effect.

Brandy has naturally blond hair. Based on this information, what do we know about Brandy’s parents?
a. At least one of her parents has a recessive gene for blond hair.
b. Each of her parents must have one recessive gene for blond hair.
c. Each of her parents must have one dominant gene for brown hair.
d. Neither of her parents has a recessive gene for blond hair.
b. Each of her parents must have one recessive gene for blond hair.

When sets of genes group together, the result can be multiple traits expressed as a single dominant trait. This is best explained by the process known as
a. dominant inheritance.
b. recessive inheritance.
c. polygenetic inheritance.
d. amines.
c. polygenetic inheritance.

Which of the following is a disorder resulting from recessive inheritance?
a. Tuner’s syndrome
b. Klinefelter’s syndrome
c. cystic fibrosis
d. Down syndrome
c. cystic fibrosis

Which disorder is characterized by having only one X chromosome in the 23rd pairing?
a. Tay-Sachs
b. Turner’s syndrome
c. cystic fibrosis
d. Down syndrome
b. Turner’s syndrome

Which term best describes Abby and Brittany Hensel?
a. They are monozygotic twins.
b. They are dicephalic twins.
c. They are dizygotic twins.
d. They are technically not twins at all.
b. They are dicephalic twins.

What is the function of placenta?
a. It helps the zygote to divide.
b. It assists the zygote in its movement towards the uterus.
c. It provides nourishment to the developing baby.
d. If effectively keeps out all teratogens.
c. It provides nourishment to the developing baby.

The 2nd week through the 8th week of pregnancy is commonly referred to as the _______ stage.
a. fetal
b. embryonic
c. placental
d. germinal
b. embryonic

Which of the following is one of the most common teratogens and can result in a malformed head and brain damage?
a. alcohol
b. caffeine
c. cocaine
d. mercury
a. alcohol

When do most miscarriages occur?
a. In the last three months
b. In the first three months
c. After the 5th month
d. In the first week after conception
b. In the first three months

One way researchers study newborn development involves measuring how long infants continue to focus upon a non-changing stimulus. This technique is referred to as
a. adaption.
b. habituation.
c. longitudinal study.
d. a cross-sectional design.
b. habituation.

Which of a baby’s senses is the most well developed at birth?
a. vision
b. touch
c. hearing
d. smell
b. touch

In which of Piaget’s stages would be a child who has just developed the ability to conserve?
a. sensorimotor
b. preoperational
c. concrete operations
d. formal operations
c. concrete operations

Vygotsky defines ______ as the process of helping less as the learner improves at a given task.
a. scaffolding
b. habituation
c. zone of proximal development
d. metamemory
a. scaffolding

Which of the following tends to occur first in a child’s language development?
a. telegraphic speech
b. babbling
c. a holophrase
d. cooing
d. cooing

According to Thomas and Chess, temperament styles often last _______ and are often influenced by _______.
a. into early childhood; the unconscious
b. into early adolescence; the environment
c. into early adulthood; family
d. throughout adulthood; heredity
d. throughout

What kind of attachment, according to Ainsworth, is shown by a baby who clings to his or her mother, gets upset when the mother leaves, and demands to be picked up but at the same time kicks and pushes her way?
a. secure
b. avoidant
c. ambivalent
d. disorganized-disoriented
c. ambivalent

Studies by Harry Harlow showed that the most important element to developing attachment is
a. feeding.
b. physical contact.
c. mental challenges.
d. sleep.
b. physical contact.

Baby Lisa is beginning to learn more about herself. When she sees herself in a mirror, she smiles and laughs but no longer needs to touch the mirror or look behind it to find the baby that she sees. Researchers would say that baby Lisa is developing
a. trust versus mistrust
b. autonomy versus same and doubt.
c. awareness of herself.
d. her internal identity.
c. awareness of herself.

According to Erikson, which stage results in a sense of independence because of one’s ability to control their own actions?
a. trust versus mistrust
b. autonomy versus shame and doubt
c. intiative versus guilt
d. generativity versus stagnation
b. autonomy versus shame and doubt

Changes in the body of young boys such as the appearance and growth of body hair is considered
a. a primary sex characteristic.
b. a secondary sex characteristic.
c. the final stage of puberty.
d. a sign of postconventional morality.
b. a secondary sex characteristic.

“It can’t happen to me. I’m special” is a common attitude found in adolescents who have developed
a. a self-concept.
b. an imaginary audience.
c. a personal fable.
d. a preconventional morality.
c. a personal fable

According to Kohlberg, about one-fifth of the adult population is at the ______ level of morality.
a. preconventional
b. conventional
c. postconventional
d. preliminary
c. postconventional

According to Erikson, the task of the adolescent is to
a. find a consistent sense of self.
b. develop a sense of initiative.
c. find intimacy with another.
d. develop a sense of industry.
a. find a consistent sense of self.

Colin is going to argue and disagree with his parents, which of the following topics will he typically be arguing over?
a. political beliefs
b. religious beliefs
c. social values
d. his taste in clothes
d. his taste in clothes

At which age does an adult’s physical senses begin to hit their peak?
a. 20s
b. 30s
c. 40s
d. 50s
a. 20s

What is the most frequent cause of death in middle age?
a. accidents
b. stroke
c. excessive risk taking
d. heart disease
d. heart disease

As Conrad has gotten older, he finds that it is becoming more difficult to remember certain words or the name of a new acquaintance. What is the most likely explanation for this change in memory?
a. Alzheimer’s disease
b. the aging process
c. stress
d. heredity
c. stress

According to Erikson, the primary task of early adulthood is
a. completing your education.
b. finding a mate.
c. starting a career.
d. taking care of aging parents.
b. finding a mate.

According to Baumrind, which type of parent would most likely say, “Because I said so” or “It’s my way or the highway!”
a. authoritarian
b. authoritative
c. permissive neglectful
d. permissive indulgent
a. authoritarian

As William celebrates his 70th birthday, he finds that he is happy with how things have turned out with his life. According to Erikson, William’s life review will cause him
a. to develop a sense of ego integrity.
b. a sense of despair, since such reviews often results in depression.
c. to develop an urgency to begin new projects.
d. to put to writing many of his accomplishments.
a. to develop a sense of ego integrity.

The structures on the ends of chromosomes that shorten each time a cell reproduces are called
a. telomeres.
b. collagen.
c. free radicals.
d. DNA
a. telomeres.

Which theory of aging is compared to the laminated number of repairs you can have before your car’s warranty runs out?
a. wear-and-tear theory
b. cellular-clock theory
c. free-radical theory
d. activity theory
b. cellular-clock theory

According to research, the reason many older people are no longer involved in their community is because
a. they are not asked to take part.
b. they quite often are unable to take part.
c. they do not wish to be involved.
d. they die.
a. they are not asked to take part.

What stage might terminally ill patients be in if they refuse to write a last will and testament because they believe that in doing so, they are admitting they will die?
a. bargaining
b. anger
c. depression
d. denial
d. denial