Chapter 8: Deviance and Social Control

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What helps us classify the line between normal and abnormal
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nonconformity get a pizza out of a bin is \”not normal\”
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deviance
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behavior that does not conform to basic cultural norms and expectations not inherit its conferred upon by others
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Deviance and social context Durkheim
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crime (and deviance) can only be defined IN RELATION TO SOCIAL NORMS a criminal act violates
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collective conscience
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shared norms beliefs and values in a community
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normal can change
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as there is social change
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labeling theory
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argues that deviance is the result of how others interpret a behavior and that individuals who are labeled deviant often internalize this judgement as part of their self identity behavior and response to behavior
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stigma
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shame attached to a behavior or status that is considered socially unacceptable or discrediting source of inequality
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secondary deviance
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deviant behavior that is a response to the negative consequences of labeling labeling people as deviant leads to this self fulfilling prophecy
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Durkheim says deviance has positive things too (3)
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1. helps define group boundaries 2. helps create social solidarity 3. is a source of innovation
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deviance helps Defining Group Boundaries
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clarifies boundaries of acceptable/non acceptable behavior within society the way in which community definition of normal and deviant help establish and change social boundaries (who’s inside and who’s outside)
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deviance helps Creating social solidarity
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deviant behavior reinforces conformity among the rest of people strengthens bonds among those who dont like deviants brings people together ex: 9/11 \”united we stand\”
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devaince is a Source of innovation
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deviants push boundaries thus healthy society NEEDS deviants to not be conformist repressive and limiting ex: democracy was considered deviant before, today we accept it
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how does sociology explain deviance? (3)
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1. result of inadequate socialization 2. product of mismatch b/w social norms and economic opportunities 3. a rational choice
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other explanations of deviance (not sociological)
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1. immorality (like line b/w good an devil FUNDAMENTALISTS) 2. illness (psychological/biological disorder) (line b/w healthy and sick)
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medicalization of deviance
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the designation of a deviant behavior as an illness that can be treated by medical professionals ex: alcoholism due to rise of power of doctors and pharmaceutical industries
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5 stages of medicalization of deviance
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1. a behavior is defined as deviant 2. medical conception of the deviant behavior is \”discovered\” 3. medical and pharmaceutical industries make claims for medical designation for deviant behavior 4. then go to gov to legitimize medical definition of deviance 5. medical def of deviance is institutionalized = accepted part of medical/legal classification system
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demedicalization
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how medicalization can be successfully blocked or reversed ex: homosexuality
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Deviance as rational choice
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when deviance has significant rewards and limited costs ex: driving above speed limit
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deviance due to inadequate socialization
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people failed to internalize social norms and aren’t regulated adequately by moral framework of society when family and schools dont transmit core values successfully
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differential association theory
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Sutherland. deviance is learned through interaction with other deviants
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deviant subculture
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a group in which membership is based on a shared commitment to specific nonconformist beliefs or behaviors
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loner deviance
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the activities of individuals who commit deviant acts without the social support of other participants ex: self harmers (cutters) may use the internet as a \”subculture\”
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Strain Theory
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Merton. says that the strain or pressure on those who lack the means to achieve culturally defined goals leads them to pursue deviant routes to success -poverty -racism -alienation Functional structuralist theories
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innovation
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Merton. socially unacceptable (deviant) routes to success ex: drug dealing, embezzling, black market
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other ways that aren’t innovation nor conformism
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1. ritualism 2. retreatism 3.rebel
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ritualism
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going through the motions (or doing something) but no longer believing in their work ex: teachers that aren’t thrilled by teaching anymore
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retreatism
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person has no access to means and rejects the goals = isolation and withdrawal
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rebel
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create new goals and adopt new means of attaining them AGENTS OF SOCIAL CHANGE
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What do we need to study to understand inner city alienation and violence?
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the structural roots of deviance
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body weight
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strain: culturally approved is slim, but reality is most Americans aren’t slim cultural norm that fat bodies are deviant obesity can act as a master status
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overconformity
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= make eating disorders emerge following cultural expectations to an excessive degree people usually respond negatively to over conformity
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positive deviance
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over conformity that gets a positive response ex: officers who take dramatic risks, overly helpful neighbors
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normalization
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previously deviant behaviors become accepted as conventional .. and then the opposite might become deviant ex: cosmetic surgery, tummy tucks
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Why is power significant in deviance (4)
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1. its connected to our basic assumptions of whats normal / deviant 2. determines whether and how authorities enforce norms and punish deviance 3. access to power allows some privileged groups to engage in distinct forms of deviant behavior (political corruption) 4. allows some people to escape being punished or labeled as deviant
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white collar crimes
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crime committed by people of high social status in course of their occupation
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social control
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incentives and punishments that promote conformity in social life
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\”battle to control the way people think feel and behave\”
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relationship between deviance and social control
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Durkheim on internalization and self control
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we are our own agents of self control we control what we do according to what we learned in life ~internal influence~
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surveillance
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Foucault. monitoring by authorities who police the boundaries of whats normal in contrast to Durkheim saying we are our own agents of self control ~internal influence~
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agents of social control
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authorities and social institutions that enforce norms and rules attempt to prevent rule violations and identify and punish rule violators
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Control theory
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our behavior is regulated by the strength of our connection to major social institutions including family school and religion Control Theorists: Why do we follow rules? Interactionalist theories
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control theorists
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why do we follow rules? what prevents us from violating rules?
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surveilance
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makes people follow the rules usually because \”they’re being watched\” scraping/cookies/cameras/prison panopticon
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crime
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deviant behavior that violates a law
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criminal justice system
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specialized agency to punish crime powerful agent of social control
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Street crime
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robbery assault arson theft violent crime or property crime
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public order crimes
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the most common crimes prostitution liquor law violations drug offenses disorderly conduct \”victimless crimes\”
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decriminalization
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process of making an illegal action legal
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hate crimes
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motivated by bias against a victims race ethnicity religion sexual orientation disability
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how study crime patterns?
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study CRIME RATES
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crime rates
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measure the incidence of crime in relation to population size
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why decline in crime rates 1990s?
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1. improved economy = less poverty /unemployment 2.more stable family structure 3. decline in # of young people 4.decrease in # of crack cocaine users 5. more effective police strategies (community policing) 6. more people in jail
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Punishment
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-reinforces bonds between people who disapprove of -criminal act reinforce commitment to social norms -strengthens social solidarity
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5 rationales for punishment
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1. retribution/revenge 2. rehabilitation/re-socialize to norm of society 3. deterrence (consequences of crime will scare people off from committing crime) 4. protection (preventive.. life sentence) 5. restoration (seek to repair the individual and social damage caused)
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Punishment and social conflict
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inequalities associated with the administration of punishment causes conflict poor vs rich blacks vs white men vs women =disparities help reinforce already existing inequalities when they return to \”real life\” after jail b/c of stigma
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recidivism
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return to criminal behavior occurs when social networks among ex cons arise and stigma of incarceration doesn’t make it easy for them to go back to \”normal life\”
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public reintegration ceremonies
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help offenders back into \”real life\” to avoid recidivism
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capital punishment
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MOST SEVERE PUNISHMENT \”death penalty\”
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commercialization of deviance
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nonconformist activities turn into commercial products create dilemmas for agents of social control ex: mardi gras, spring break, vacations as \”playful deviance\”
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growth of deviance as a leisure activity isn’t losing social control
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its gaining more social control letting people \”blow off steam\” that in turn allows them to go back and reinforce existing norms and social structures

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