Chapter 7: Immigrants and Urbanization

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Ellis Island
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processing center for immigrants arriving on the East Coast
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Angel Island
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processing center for immigrants arriving on the East Coast
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melting pot
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a society in which various racial, ethnic, and cultural groups are blended together
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nativism
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a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
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Chinese Exclusion Act
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Gentlemen’s Agreement
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1907 arrangement in which Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them
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urbanization
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the growth of cities and the migration of people into them
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Americanization movement
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education program designed to help immigrants assimilate to American culture
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tenement
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a building in which several families rent rooms or apartments, often with little sanitation or safety
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mass transit
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public transportation system designed to move large numbers of people along fixed routes
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Social Gospel movement
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emphasized the application of Christian principles to social problems
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settlement house
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community center located in a poor neighborhood that provided numerous services such as medical care, child care, libraries, and classes in English
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Jane Addams
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1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women’s Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.
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political machine
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well organized group that controls election results by awarding jobs and other favors in exchange for votes
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graft
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illegal use of political influence for personal gain
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Boss Tweed
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leader of the Tammany Hall, New York Democratic political machine
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patronage
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granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
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civil service
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those civilian employees who perform the administrative work of government
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Rutherford B. Hayes
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James A. Garfield
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Chester A. Arthur
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Pendleton Civil Service Act
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(1883): did away with the \”spoils system\” and made the hiring and promoting of federal employees merit based
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Grover Cleveland
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Benjamin Harrison
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