Chapter 7 – Electrons in Atom and the Periodic Table

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Electromagnetic Spectrum
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a continuous rane of radiant energy that includes radio waves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and gamma rays
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Electromagnetic Radiation
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any form of radiant energy in the electromagnetic spectrum
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Wavelength
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the distance from crest to crest or trough to trough on a wave
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Frequency
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expresses the number of times a wave passes a given point in some unit of time (typically one second)
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Hertz
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the SI unit of frequency expresses in the units s-1
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Frequency
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expresses the number of times a wave passes a given point in some unit of time (typically one second)
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Amplitude
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the height of the crest or the depth of the trough with respect to the center line of the wave; the intensity of a wave is related to this
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Refraction
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the bending of light as it passes from one medium to another with different densities
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Diffraction
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the bending of electromagnetic radiation as it passes around the edge of an object or through narrow openings
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Interference
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the interaction of waves that results in either reinforcing or canceling the amplitudes
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Frannofer Lines
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set of dark lines in the otherwise continuous solar spectrum
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Atomic Emission Spectra
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consist of bright lines on a dark background; appear at specific wavelengths; also called bright-line spectra
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Atomic Absorption Spectra
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consist of dark lines produced when free, gaseous atoms are illuminated by external sources of radiation; also called dark-line spectra
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Quantum
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the smallest discrete quantity of a particular form of energy
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Quantum Theory
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based on the idea that energy is absorbed and emitted in discrete quanta
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Quantized
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has values that are restricted to whole-number multiples of a specific base value; the base unit of energy is the quantum
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Planck’s Constant
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the proportionality constant between the energy and frequency of electromagnetic radiation
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Photoelectric Effect
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occurs when light strikes a metal surface and an electric current (a flow of electrons) is produced
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Threshold Frequency
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the minimum frequency of light that is required to produce the photoelectric effect
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Photon
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quantum of electromagnetic radiation
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Work Function
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the amount of energy needed to dislodge an electron from the surface of a metal
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Energy Level
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an allowed state that an electron can occupy in an atom
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Electron Transitions
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movement of electrons between energy levels
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Ground State
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the lowest energy level available to an electron in an atom
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Excited State
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any energy state above the ground state
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Matter Wave
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the wave associated with any particle
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Standing Wave
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confined to a given space and has a wavelength that is related to L of the space
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Node
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a location in a standing wave that experiences no displacement
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Wave Mechanics
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the description of the wavelike behavior of particles on the atomic level
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Schrodinger Wave Equation
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describes the electron in hydrogen as a matter wave and indicates how it varies with location and time around the nucleus solutions to the wave equation are the energy levels of the hydrogen atom
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Wave Function
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a solution to the Schrodinger equation
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Orbitals
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defined by the square of the wave function; are regions around the nucleus where the probability of finding an electron is high
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Quantum Numbers
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unique combination of three integers that define each orbital
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Principal Quantum Numbers
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a positive integer that describes the relative size and energy of an atomic orbital or group of orbitals in an atom
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Angular Momentum Quantum Number
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an integer that may have any value from 0 to n-1; defines the shape of an orbital
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Magnetic Quantum Number
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an integers that may have any value from -l to +l; defines the orientation of an orbital in space
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Spin Magnetic Quantum Number
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either +1/2 or -1/2, indicating that the electron spin orientation is either up or down
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Pauli Exclusion Principle
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states that no two electrons in an atom each have the same set of quantum numbers
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Valence Electrons
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the electrons in the outermost shell of an atom and have the most influence on the atoms chemical behavior
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Core Electrons
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electrons in the files, inner-shell in an atom and are not involves in chemical reactions
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Degenerate
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orbitals that have the exact same energy level
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Hund’s Rule
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states that lowest energy electron configuration of an atom is the configuration with the maximum of unpaired electrons in degenerate orbitals, all having the same spin
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Electron Configuration
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describes the distribution of electrons among the orbitals of an atom or ion
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Aufbau Principle
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the method of building electron configurations one electron at a time; one elctron is added to the lowest-energy orbitals of a ground-state atom; the electron configurations of atoms are built in sequence as atomic number increases in order across the rows of the periodic table
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Orbital Diagrams
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one way of showing the arrangement of electrons in an atom or ion using boxes to represent orbitals
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Isoelectronic
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atoms and ions that have identical numbers and configurations of electrons as each other
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Orbital Penetration
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occur when an electron in an outer orbital has some probability of being as close to the nucleus as an electron in an inner shell
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Screening
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the effect when inner-shell electrons protect outer-shell electrons from experiencing the total nuclear charge; also called shielding
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Effective Nuclear Charge
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the attractive force toward the nucleus experienced by an electron in an atom; its value is the positive charge on the nucleus reduced by the extent to which other electrons in the atom shield it from the nucleus
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Ionization Energy
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the amount of energy needs to remove one mole of electrons from a mole of ground-state atoms or ions in the gas phase
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Effective Nuclear Charge
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the attractive force toward the nucleus experienced by an electron in an atom; its value is the positive charge on the nucleus reduced by the extent to which other electrons in the atom shield it from the nucleus
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Ionization Energy
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the amount of energy needs to remove one mole of electrons from a mole of ground-state atoms or ions in the gas phase

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