Chapter 6 Systems Development: Phases, Tools, and Techniques

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insourcing
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IT specialists inside your org
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selfsourcing
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do-it- yourself approach many end users take with little or no help from IT specialists
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outsourcing
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a third party organization (i.e. let someone do the work and pay them for it)
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systems development life cycle (SDLC)
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a structured step by step approach for developing information systems -7 phases
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waterfall methodology
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an approach in which SDLC is followed by another from planning through implementation
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planning phase (SDLC)
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create a solid plan for developing your information system 1. define the system to be developed 2.set the project scope 3. develop the project plan including tasks, resources, and timeframes
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critical success factor (CSF)
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a factor simply critical to your organization’s success
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project scope
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clearly defines the high level system requirements
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scope creep
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occurs when developers ass extra features that were not part of the initial requirements
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project scope document
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a written definition of the project scope and is usually no longer than a paragraph
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project plan
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defines the what, when, and who questions of system development
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project manager
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an individual who is an expert in project planning and management, defines and develops that project plan and tracks the plan to ensure all key project milestones are completed on time
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project milestones
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represents key dates for which you need a certain group of activities performed
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analysis phase
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involves end users and IT specialists working together to gather, understand, and document the business requirements for the proposed system 1. gather business requirements 2. prioritize requirements
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business requirements
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the detailed set of knowledge worker request that the system must meet in order to be successful -address the why and what of development activities
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joint application development (JAD)
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knowledge workers and IT specialists meet, sometimes for several days, to define or review the business requirements for the system
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requirements definition document
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prioritizes the business requirements and places them in a formal comprehensive document
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design phase
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build a technical blueprint of how the proposed system will work two primary design activities: 1. design technical architecture 2. design system models
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technical architecture
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defines the hardware, software, and telecommunications equipment required to run the system
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development phase
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take all of the detailed design documents from the design phase and transform them into an actual system two primary development activities: 1. build the technical architecture 2. build the database and programs
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testing phase
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verifies that the system works and meets all of the business requirements defined in the analysis phase two primary testing activities: 1. write the test conditions 2. perform the testing of the system
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unit testing
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tests individual units of codes
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system testing
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verifies that the units of code function correctly when integrated
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integration testing
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verifies that separate systems work together
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user acceptance testing (UAT)
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determines id the system satisfies the business requirements
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implementation phase
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distribute the system to all the knowledge workers and they begin using the system to perform their everyday jobs 1. write detailed user documentation 2. provide detailed training for system users
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user documentation
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highlights how to use the system
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online training
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runs over the internet or off a CD-ROM
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workshop training
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held in a classroom environment and lead by an instructor
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parallel implementation
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use both the old and the new system simultaneously -safe but expensive
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plunge implementation
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discard the old system completely and use the new -risky and inexpensive
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pilot implementation
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start with small groups of people on the new system and gradually add more users -safe but expensive
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phased implementation
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implement the new system in phases -safe but expensive
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maintenance phase
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monitor and support the new system to ensure it continues to meet the business goals 1. build a help desk to support the system users 2. provide an environment to support system changes
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help desk
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a group of people who responds to knowledge worker’s questions
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component based development (CBD)
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focuses on building small self-contained blocks of code (components) that can be reused across a variety of applications 1. using already developed components 2. building new components as needed -rapid application development (RAD) -extreme programming (XP) -agile methodology
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rapid application development (RAD) —(rapid prototyping)
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emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate systems development
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extreme programming (XP)
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breaks a project into tiny phases and developers cannot continue on to the next phase until the first phase is complete
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agile methodology
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a form of XP aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuos delivery of useful software components
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service oriented architecture (SoA)
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perspective that focuses on the development, use, and reuse of small self contained blocks of code(called services) to meet all application software needs
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selfsourcing (end-user development)
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the development and support of IT systems by end users with little or no help from IT specialists
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invisible backlog
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list of all systems that an organization needs to develop but never funded because of the lack of organizational resources
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prototype
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a model of a proposed product, service, or system
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prototyping
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the process of building a model that demonstrates the features of a proposed product, service, or system
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proof of concept prototype
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prove the technical feasibility of a proposed system
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selling prototype
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used to convince people of the worth of a proposed system
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outsourcing
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the delegation of specified work to a third party for a specified length of time, at a specified cost, and at a specified level of service
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request for proposal (RFP)
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formal document that describes in excruciating detail your logical requirements for a proposed system and invites outsourcing organizations to submit bids for its development -In outsourcing, you must tell another organization what you want developed; you do that with an RFP
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service level agreement (SLA)
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formal contractually obligated agreement between two parties
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onshore outsourcing
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the process of engaging another company within the same country for services
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nearshore outsourcing
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contracting an outsourcing arrangement with a company in nearby country
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offshore outsourcing
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contracting with a company that is geographically far away

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