Chapter 6: Nonverbal Communication

Flashcard maker : Lesly Nixon
Nonverbal Communication, symbolic meaning, intentionally
All the messages that people transmit through means other than words
It is a type of nonverbal behavior that has ? DOES NOT HAVE TO BE ? transmitted- to understand nonverbal you have to consider entire behavioral context, including what the person might be communicating verbally.
Nonverbal behavior
All the nonverbal actions people perform – does not stand for anything
verbal aspects, interpret overall message
Nonverbal communication plays an important role in social interaction because:
1. It helps to express and interpret ? of communication
2. Influences how individuals ? – especially those related to feelings, moods and attitudes
complex, continuous, multichanneled, and ambiguous
We often have difficulty reading others’ nonverbal cues because ?
appearance, objects, environment, behavior, social setting
The nonverbal component of communication include all the messages that people transmit through means other than words encompassing the sending and receiving of information through ?,? ?, ? and?
Culture
? is one of the most important factors that influence the meaning of non-verbal communication
cultures, relationship, know someone, sex
Influencers of nonverbal communication:
1. nonverbal gestures have vastly different meanings in different ?
2. ? between the people interacting affects the meaning of non-verbal communication (husband taking a wife’s arm versus police officer)
3. How well we ? can affect how we interpret the meaning of non-verbal communication
4. ? is factor in how we interpret non-verbal communication ex. Hair flip sexual vs getting it out of your eyes
Nonverbal codes
Distinct, organized means of expression that consist of symbols and rules for their use
Kinesics, paralinguistics, time (chronemics) and space (proxemics), haptics, appearance and artifacts
What are the 5 aspects of non-verbal codes?
Kinesics
Nonverbal communication send by the body, including gestures, posture, movement facial expressions and eye behavior
body, face, gestures, posture, facial expressions, eye behavior
2 part of kinesics? and the subcategories?
Gestures
Nonverbal communication made with part of the body, including actions such as pointing, waving, or holding up a hand to direct people attention
illustrators, emblems, adaptors, regulators
Please name and give an example of the 4 types of nonverbal gestures
Illustrators
Signals that accompany speech to clarify or emphasize the verbal message. Pointing while saying “it’s over there”
Emblems
Gestures that stand for a specific verbal meaning. Giving the peace sign.
Adaptors
Gestures used to manage emotions
Regulators
Gestures used to control conversation
immediate, relaxed
We evaluate posture in 2 ways: how ? it is and and how ? it appears
Immediacy
How close or involved people appear to be with each other
Relaxation
The degree of tensions displayed by ones body
move, walk
The way you ? or ? can also communicate messages to others, particularly about your mood or emotional state
culture, context, background knowledge, gender
Factors that influence non-verbal comm:
Face, eyes
This type of nonverbal behavior expresses more than perhaps any other. These expressions are the primary channels of transmitting emotion, and the ? in particular convey important messages regarding attraction and attention. (facial expression is due to genetic programming) – taught to manage it
Paralinguistics
The vocal aspects on non-verbal communication and include RATE, VOLUME, PITCH and STRESS
oral, verbal
Paralinguistics are those aspects of languages that are ? but not ?, that is it describes all aspects of spoken language EXCEPT for the words themselves
voice qualities, vocalization
Paralinguistics are composed of 2 types of vocal behavior:
Voice Qualities
Qualities such as speed, pitch, rhythm, vocal range and articulation that make up the “music” of the human voice (Obama vs Keanu Reeves)
Vocalizations
Uttered sounds that do not have the structure of language Ex. Uh huh, ah, er these typically serve as FILLERS
mood and emotion, emphasize, distinctive, regulate
pg 146 What communication purposes do paralinguistics serve?
Used to reveal ?, allow us to ? or stress a word or idea, create a ? identity, and along with gestures ? conversation
Chronemics, proxemics
Two non-verbal terms used to refer time and space
Chronemics
The study of the way people use time as a message
Proxemics
The study of how people use spacial cues, including interpersonal distance, territoriality, and other space relationships to communicate. (communicates physical and psychological closeness)
monochronically, polychronically
2 ways to use time?
monochronically
Engaging in one task or behavior at a time
polychronically
Engaging in multiple activities simultaneously
intimate, personal, social, public
What are the 4 distances people use to communicate?
Intimate distance, lovemaking, cuddling, comforting, secrets
0 to 18 inches Tends to be reserved for those whom one knows very well. Distance used for displaying physical and psychological intimacy, such as ?, ? children, ?someone, telling ?
Personal Distance, friends or acquantances
18 inches to 4 feet. Describes the space we use when interacting with ?. Nearer for friends farther for acquantances
Social Distance, unfamiliar others
4 to 12 feet. In the US the distance we use when interacting with ?. For example impersonal business with grocery clerks and coworkers while the greatest is used for formal such as job interviews.
Public distance, public ceremonies
12 to 25 feet Appropriate for ? such as lectures and performances
Personalization or markings
A primary way to attempt to claim and maintain control of a space – such as using artifacts. Nonverbal communication that specifies territorial ownership
personal, temporary, public
3 types of territories:
1. a home or bedroom
2. An office or a cubicle
3. park benches, walking trails and roads
Haptics
The study of the communication function of touch – the least studied forms of non-verbal communication.
Professional/functional touch
Type of touch used by certain workers such as dentists, hairstylists, and hospital workers, as part of their livelihood also known as ? does not communicate intamacy
Social-polite touch
touch that is part of daily interactions in the United States, is is more intimate than professional touch but is still IMPERSONAL! Ex. Shaking hands when greeting acquaintances and casual friends Communicates some intamacy
Friendship touch, warmth
Touch that is more intimate than social touch and usually conveys ?, closeness, and caring used with friends and acquaintances Ex. brief hugs, a hand on the shoulder
Love-intimate touch
The touch most often used with one’s romantic partners and family Ex. Long kisses, extended hugging and cuddling
Conveys intamacy
Demand touch, work
A type of touch used to establish dominance and power. Increases in herarchial settings such as ?
Aggressive touch
Grabbing, hitting and pinching
Withdrawal touch
Pushing another’s arm away or refusing to hold ones hand
professional-functional, social-polite, love-intimate, demand
Please name the 5 forms of general touch!! and Give examples
PF, SP, F, LI, D
Artifacts
Clothing and accessories: that convey a nonverbal message about status, personality, success, or group membership
communicating information, regulating interaction, expressing and managing intimacy, establishing social control, signaling service-task function
Non-verbal communication serce 5 functions during interaction:
repeating, highlighting, emphasizing, reinforcing, complementing, contradicting, substituting
What are the 5 ways that non-verbal information help individuals communicate ie convey and interpret verbal messages?
1. By ? a message (winking while saying “I’m just kidding”)
2. By ? or ? a message (Pointing at the door while saying “get out”)
3.By ? or ? a message (Whispering while telling a secret)
4. By ? a message (Saying “I love your haircut” while speaking in a hostile tone)
5. By ? for a message (shaking ones head to indicate disagreement)
Communicating information
Using non-verbal behaviors to help clarify verbal messages and reveal attitudes and moods
Regulating Interaction
Using nonverbal behaviors to help manage conversational interaction
Regulating
Which of the functions of non-verbal communication is the most automatic, but we tend not to think about it. Interpersonal distance, body orientation, and posture as well as more fluid behaviors like gaze, facial expression, volume and pitch
Expressing and managing intamacy
Using nonverbal behaviors to help convey attraction and closeness. Leaning forward using a lot of paralinguistics such as uh huhs
Establishing social control
Using nonverbal behavior to exercise influence over other people. Smiling at someone when they want them to do them a favor or glaring at noisy patrons in a theater, Someone who is “charming”.
nonverbal reciprocity, nonverbal complentary
When expressing and managing intimacy people tend to respond with ?
When engaging in social control people tend to respond with?
Service-task functions
Using nonverbal behavior to signal close involvement between people in impersonal relationships and contexts. Golf pros
Nonverbal reciprocity
Many people unconsciously mimic their partner’s postures gestures and other movements in social settings.
– status or dominance is likely to influence who mimics whom
Nonverbal complementarity
Respond to dominant behaviors with submissive ones and submissive behaviors with dominant ones (a stare – look away)
Artifacts and appearance
? are a key nonverbal indicator to power as in the US power is primarily based on an individual’s access to economic resources and the freedom to make decisions that affect others
– based on interpretations will exclude or include others
nonverbally, unethical, real, verbal, insult, intimidate, observe, loved one
Ethics
You can still lie ?
When communicators use nonverbal cues that ridicule, derogate or otherwise demean others, they run the risk of their behavior being viewed by others as ?
You should consider:
1. Do you NVB reflect your ?attitudes, beliefs and feelings?
2. Do your NVB contradict the ? message you are saying?
3. Do you NVB ? or ridicule others?
4. Do you NVM ?, coerce or silence?
5. Would you want anyone to ? your NVB?
6. WOuld you want this NVB to be directed toward you or a ?
Congruent
Verbal and nonverbal messages that express the same meaning. “I like you” with leaning in and smiling
Contradicting
Verbal and nonverbal messages that send conflicting messages. Example: purposeful “What a nice pair of shows” with a sarcastic tone or accidental smiling while telling a child to stop when a child does something woring
congruent, contradicting, context, knowledge of the other person
2 ways to improve nonverbal communication skills
1Check to see whether verbal and nonverbal is ?
2 Analyzing the ?, your ? and your own experiences (slapped on rear playing baseball)
mean the same thing as yours, individual, contextual and cultural factors, intended to communicate, examine the entire set of behaviors
Other suggestions:
1. Recognize that others nonverbal messages dont always ?
2. Be aware of ? that influence meaning
3. Ask for ? if you don’t understand a nonverbal message of if you perceive a contradiction
4. Remember that not every nonverbal message is ?
5. Don’t place too much emphasis on fleeting nonverbal behaviors, such as facial expression or vocal tone; rather, ?

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