Chapter 6: Emotional and Social Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood

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basic trust vs. mistrust
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psychological conflict of the first year of life; resolved positively when the balance of care is sympathetic and loving
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autonomy vs. shame and doubt
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psychological conflict of toddlerhood that is resolved favorably when parents provide young children with suitable guidance and reasonable choices
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basic emotions
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happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust; these are all universal in humans and appear around age 6 months
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social smile
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a broad grin that babies display between 6 and 10 weeks; signifies enhanced perceptual capacities
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stranger anxiety
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most frequent expression of fear that is displayed between 6 months and age 1; displayed toward unfamiliar adults
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secure base
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babies use the familiar caregiver as a point from which to explore, venturing into the environment and then returning for emotional support
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emotional contagion
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feeling happy or sad when infants sense emotions in others
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social referencing
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infants engage in this practice to actively seek emotional information from a trusted person in an uncertain situation
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self-conscious emotions
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higher-order set of feelings that emerge between 18-24 months; these include guilt, shame, embarrassment, envy, and pride
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emotional self-regulation
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the strategies we use to adjust our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals; parents help to develop this within the first few months through 2 years of life
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temperament
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early-appearing, stable individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation
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reactivity
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the part of temperament that refers to the quickness and intensity of emotional arousal, attention, and motor activity
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self-regulation
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part of temperament that refers to strategies that modify reactivity
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easy child
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about 40% of children are classified as this; they quickly establish regular routines in infant, are generally cheerful, and adapt easily to new experiences
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difficult child
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about 10% of children are classified as this; they are irregular in daily routines, are slow to accept new experiences, and tend to react negatively and intensely
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slow-to-warm-up child
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about 15% of children are classified as this; they are inactive, show mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli, are negative in mood, and adjust slowly to new experiences
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effortful control
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the self-regulatory dimension of temperament, which includes the capacity to voluntarily suppress a dominant response in order to plan and execute a more adaptive response
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inhibited children
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children who react negatively and withdraw from social stimuli
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uninhibited children
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children who display positive emotion to and approach novel stimuli
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goodness-of-fit model
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model proposed by Thomas and Chess (1977) which describes how temperament and environment together can produce favorable outcomes; this involves creating child-rearing environments that recognize each child’s temperament while encouraging more adaptive functioning
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attachment
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the strong, affectionate tie we have with special people in our lives that leads us to feel pleasure when we interact with them and to be comforted by their nearness in times of stress
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ethological theory of attachment
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theory of attachment which recognizes the infant’s emotional tie to the caregiver as an evolved response that promotes survival; most widely accepted view and was first applied by John Bowlby
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preattachment phase
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this phase of the ethological theory of attachment occurs from birth to 6 weeks; built-in signals help bring newborn babies into close contact with humans who comfort them
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attachment-in-the-making phase
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this phase of the ethological theory of attachment occurs from 6 weeks to 6-8 months; infants respond differently to a familiar caregiver than to a stranger; sense of trust begins to develop
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clear-cut attachment phase
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this phase of the ethological theory of attachment occurs from 6-8 months to 18 months; babies display separation anxiety, becoming upset when their trusted caregiver leaves
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separation anxiety
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when babies become upset when their trusted caregiver leaves; occurrence of this depends on infant temperament and the current situation
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formation of a reciprocal relationship
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this phase of the ethological theory of attachment occurs from 18 months to 2 years of age; there is rapid growth in representation and language permits toddlers to understand factors that influence parent’s coming and going and to predict return
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internal working model
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a set of expectations that children develop about the availability of attachment figures and their likelihood of providing support during times of stress; this becomes a vital part of personality, serving as a guide for all future close relationships
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Strange Situation
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a widely used lab procedure for assessing attachment quality between 1 and 2 years of age that takes the baby through eight short episodes in which brief separations from and reunions with the parent occur in an unfamiliar playroom; designed by Mary Ainsworth;
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secure attachment
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type of attachment in which infants use the parent as a secure base; when separated, they may or may not cry, but if they do, it is because the parent is absent and they prefer her to the stranger; when the parent returns, they actively seek contact, their crying is reduced; comprises 60% of North American infants in middle-class SES families
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avoidant attachment
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type of attachment in which infants seem unresponsive to the parent when she is present; when she leaves, they are usually not distressed and they react to the stranger in much the same way as to the parent; during reunions, they avoid or are slow to greet parent, and when picked up they often fail to cling; comprises 15% of North American infant in middle-class SES families
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resistant attachment
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type of attachment in which infants seek closeness to the parent and fail to explore before separation; when the parent leaves, they are usually distressed, and on her return they combine clinginess with angry, resistive behavior, sometimes hitting and pushing; many continue to cry after being picked up and cannot be comforted easily; comprises 10% of North American infants in middle SES
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disorganized/disoriented attachment
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type of attachment in which infants show the greatest insecurity; upon reunion, they show confused and contradictory behaviors–for example, looking away while the parent is holding them or approaching the parent with flat, depressed emotion; comprises 15% of North American infants in middle SES
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attachment q-sort
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an alternative method of assessing child-parent attachment that is suitable for children ages 1-4 and depends on home observation; either parent or highly trained observer sorts 90 behaviors into 9 categories ranging from highly descriptive to not at all descriptive of child; then a score is computed; some scores correspond well with Strange Situation but some do not
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opportunity for attachment, quality of caregiving, infant characteristics, parents’ internal working models
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factors that influence attachment security between children and parents
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sensitive caregiving
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responding promptly, consistently, and appropriately to infants and holding them tenderly and carefully; moderately related to attachment security in diverse cultures and SES groups
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self-recognition
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the identification of the self as a physically unique being becomes well-established around age 2
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empathy
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the ability to understand another’s emotional state and feel with that person, or respond emotionally in a similar way
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categorical self
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developed between 18 and 30 months of age, children classify themselves on the basis of age, sex, physical characteristics, and goodness versus badness
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compliance
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toddlers first become capable of this between 12-18 months; they show clear awareness of caregivers’ wishes and expectations and can obey simple requests and commands
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delay of gratification
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waiting for an appropriate time and place to engage in a tempting act; between ages 1 1/2 and 3, children show an increasing capacity to wait before eating a treat, opening a present, or playing with a toy; capacity to do this is influenced by both biologically based temperament and quality of caregiving

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