chapter 6 early childhood: psychosocial development

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Parten’s Play Categories
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1) Solitary play: Child plays alone unaware of other children playing nearby, 2) Onlooker play: Child watches other children play, 3) Parallel play: Children play with similar toys in similar ways but not together, 4) Associative play: Children interact, observing each other and sharing, but their play is not yet mutual or reciprocal, 5) Cooperative play: Children play together, creating and elaborating a joint activity or taking turns.
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Rough-and-Tumble Play
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Play that mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, but in which is no intent to harm.
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Sociodramatic Play
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Pretend play in which children act out various roles and themes in stores that they create.
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Baumrind’s 4 important characteristics of parenting
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1) Expressions of warmth, 2) Strategies for discipline, 3) Communication, 4) Expectations for maturity
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Baumrind’s Parenting Styles
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1) Authoritarian – High behavioral standards, strict punishment, little communication, 2) Permissive – High nurturance and communication, but little discipline, guidance, or control 3) Authoritative – Parents set limits and enforce rules but are flexible and listen to their children, 4) Negletful / Uninvolved – Parents are indifference toward their children and unaware of what’s going on in their lives.
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Outcomes of authoritarian parenting
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Conscientious, obedient, and quite but not happy. Tend to feel guilty or depressed, internalizing their emotions, blaming themselves when things go wrong. Sometimes rebel, leaving home at early age.
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Outcomes of authoritative parenting
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Successful, articulate, happy with themselves, and generous. Liked by others. Individual initiative.
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Outcomes of permissive parenting
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Raise unhappy children who lack self-control, especially in the give-and-take of peer relationships. Inadequate emotional regulation makes them immature and impedes friendships, which is the main reason for their unhappiness. Tend to live at home, still dependent, in early adulthood.
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superego
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In psychoanalytic theory, the judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents.
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Oedipus complex
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The unconscious desire of young boys to replace their fathers and win their mothers’ exclusive love.
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Electra complex
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The unconscious desire of girls to replace their mothers and win their fathers’ exclusive love.
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neglectful/uninvolved parenting
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An approach to child rearing in which the parents are indifferent toward their children and unaware of what is going on in their children’s lives
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permissive parenting
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An approach to child rearing that is characterized by high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control.
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authoritarian parenting
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An approach to child rearing that is characterized by high behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct, and little communication.
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authoritative parenting
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An approach to child rearing that is characterized by high behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct, and little communication.
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rough-and-tumble play
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Play that mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, but in which there is no intent to harm.
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Bullying Aggression
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Unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves.
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Relational Aggression
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Nonphysical acts, such as insults or social rejection, aimed at harming the social connection between the victim and other people. Destroys another child’s self-esteem and social networks.
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Reactive Aggression
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An impulsive retaliation for another person’s intentional or accidental action, verbal or physical.
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Instrumental Aggression
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Hurtful behavior that is intended to get something that another person has and to keep it.
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Emotional regulation
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Lack of emotional regulation is universally accepted as an early sign or psychopathology, an illness or disorder or the mind. Emotional regulation requires thinking before acting and therefore is the province of the prefrontal cortex, the executive are of the brain. It regulates those parts of the limbic system where powerful emotions, such as fear and anxiety, form.
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Erikson’s Initiative Versus Guilt
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Third psychosocial crisis, in which children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them.
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externalizing problems
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Difficulty with emotional regulation that involves expressing powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts, as by lashing out at other people or breaking things.
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internalizing problems
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Difficulty with emotional regulation that involves turning one’s emotional distress inward, as by feeling excessively guilty, ashamed, or worthless.
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psychopathology
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An illness or disorder of the mind.
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gender schema
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A child’s cognitive concept or general belief about sex differences, which is based on his or her observations and experiences
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androgyny
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A balance within one person of traditionally masculine and feminine psychological characteristics.
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gender differences
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Differences in the roles and behaviors that are prescribed by a culture for males and females.
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sex differences
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Biological differences between males and females, in organs, hormones, and body shape.
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time-out
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A disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people and activities for a specified time.
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psychological control
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A disciplinary technique that involves threatening to withdraw love and support and that relies on a child’s feelings of guilt and gratitude to the parents.
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antisocial behavior
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Actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another person.
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prosocial behavior
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Actions that are helpful and kind but that are of no obvious benefit to the person doing them.
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antipathy
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Feelings of dislike or even hatred for another person
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sociodramatic play
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Pretend play in which children act out various roles and themes in stories that they create.
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extrinsic motivation
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A drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that arises from the need to have one’s achievements rewarded from outside, perhaps by receiving material possessions or another person’s esteem.
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intrinsic motivation
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A drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that comes from inside a person, such as the need to feel smart or competent.
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solitary play
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a child plays alone with no awareness of or involvement with other children, even if they are nearby
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onlooker play
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the child watches and becomes emotionally involved in the play of others, but does not actually enter into the activities.
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parallel play
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two or more children play with the same type of toys in a similar way, in close proximity and with an awareness of each others’ presence, but without actually sharing toys, talking, or interacting more than minimally.
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associative play
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two or more children engage in common activity, but no tasks or roles are assigned, and goals are not very clear.
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cooperative play
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two or more children interact in order to accomplish a goal; or or two members organize and direct the activity, and different children assume different roles and responsiblilities. This type of play provides a forum for improving social skills, requires the highest degree of cooperation with others, an ability invaluable throughout life.
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gender identity
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they are learning to correctly to label themselves and others as well as either a boy or a girl
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gender constancy
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a child’s awareness that their gender is fixed and permenent does not develop until considerably later in the preschool years about the age of four
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gender-role and stereotype
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an awareness of differential behavioral norms for boys and girls, does not appear until the age of five
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how does watchign video violence affect children
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become more violent
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empathy
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born with and the emotions to help other
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Children who master ___________ have learned when and how to express emotions.
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emotional regulation
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Erikson noted that as self-esteem builds, children generally display:
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confidence and independence.
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Preschoolers predict that they can solve impossible puzzles or control their dreams. These naive predictions are called:
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protective optimism.
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refers to the self-blame that people experience when they do something wrong.
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guilt
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A musician who plays for the delight of making music has an:
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intrinsic motivation
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An illness or disorder of the mind is referred to as:
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psychopathology
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At night, Brooks, age 4, is afraid of the sound of the train whistle and of going to bed without a light on. His excessive fears are an expression of:
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immature development of his prefrontal cortex.
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Peers provide practice in:
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emotional regulation. b. empathy. c. social understanding.
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Which of the following is an example of parallel play?
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Children play with similar toys, but not together.
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Many researchers have traced the effects of parenting on child development, but the researcher whose findings continue to be very influential is:
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Baumrind.
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On average, young children of every ethnic and economic group spend ________ a day exposed to electronic media.
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3 to 5 hours
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Which one of the following terms refers to a true understanding of the feelings and concerns of another person?
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empathy
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Johnny, age 6, suddenly makes an angry face at Alan and kicks him hard for no apparent reason. Johnny is displaying:
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antisocial behavior.
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Which type of aggression is characterized by insults or social rejection aimed at harming the victim’s friendships?
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relational aggression
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The ultimate goal of discipline is to:
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teach the child the standards of behavior within his or her culture
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Longitudinal research has found that children who are physically punished:
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are more likely to become bullies, delinquents, and then abusive adults.
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Children have a firm understanding of biological differences between males and females by age:
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8
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Erik Erikson’s third developmental stage—the stage during which self-esteem emerges—is called:
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initiative versus guilt.
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The emotion of _______ is the foundation for practice and mastery of new skills.
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pride
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A drive that comes from inside a person is called an:
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intrinsic motivation.
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In an experiment by Lepper and colleagues (1973), children who received an expected award for drawing:
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were less likely to draw
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The part of the brain in which neurological advances significantly affect the ability to regulate emotion is the:
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prefrontal cortex.
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According to research, for people in the United States, one of the most important goals for emotional regulation is:
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overcoming fear.
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Girls whose behavior problems got worse over the first years of primary school were more likely to engage in _____________ than boys were.
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reparative behavior
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The ___________________, or physical setting, is one aspect of culture that shapes play.
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ecological context
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Which type of play appears first in Parten’s progression of social play?
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solitary
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The researcher Diana Baumrind found that parents differ in four important dimensions of rearing children. Which of the following is one of those dimensions?
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expressions of warmth
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What percentage of 3-year-olds have a television in their bedroom?
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25
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parent might ask a child, \”How would you feel if someone did that to you?\” to:
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encourage empathy.
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Feelings and actions that are helpful and kind without a personal motive are:
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prosocial
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What kind of aggression is unprovoked and involves repeated physical or verbal attacks?
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bullying
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In relating discipline to a young child’s developmental characteristics, it is important to remember that:
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children are actively forming the theory of mind and self-concepts necessary for empathy and prosocial behaviors.
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Physical punishment ________ the possibility of aggression and temporarily ______ obedience.
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increases; increases
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Biological differences between males and females are referred to as:
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sex differences.

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