Chapter 6 – Chemistry

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The state of a substance depends on what two factors
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temperature and pressure
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what four properties are commonly used to distinguish substances?
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density, shape, compressibility, thermal compression
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density
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the mass of a sample of matter divided by the volume of the same sample
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shape
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sometimes dependant on container and sometimes not, depending on the state of matter
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compressibility
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the chamge in volume resulting from a pressure change
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thermal expansion
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the change in volume resulting from temperature changes
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how does a thermometer work?
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thermal expansion-as the temp of the liquid increases, it expands and fills more of the fine capillary tube on with the temp scale is engraved.
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density of a solid
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high
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shape of a solid
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definite
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compressibility of a solid
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small
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thermal expansion of a solid
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very small
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density of a liquid
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high-usually lower than the corresponding solid
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shape of a liquid
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indefinite
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compressibility of a liquid
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small-usually higher than that of the corresponding solid
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thermal expansion of a liquid
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small
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density of a gas
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low
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shape of a gas
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indefinite
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compressibility of gas
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large
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thermal expansion of a gas
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moderate
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the kinetic molecular theory of matter is used to explain
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the behavior of matter in its various states
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first postulate of the KMT
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matter is composed of tiny particles called molecules
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second postulate of the KMT
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the particles are in constant motion and therefore possess kinetic energy
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third postulate of the KMT
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the particles possess potential energy as a result of attracting or repelling each other
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fourth postulate of the KMT
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the average particle speed increases ass the temperature increases
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fifth posulate of the KMT
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the particles tansfer energy to each other during collisions in which no net energy is lost from the system
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What makes a substance a solid liquid or gas
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itdepends on the strength of attractive foreces active between atoms.
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what unit is used for the volume of a solid
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centimeters cubed
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what unit will be used for volume of a gas?
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liters cubed
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unit for volume of a liquid?
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mL
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exact density is dependant on
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temperature
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two types of energy
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kinetic and potential
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potential energy
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stored energy
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kinetic energy
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energy of motion
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formula for kinetic energy
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one half times mass times velocity squared
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energy can be transformed from one type to another but cannot
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be created or destroyed
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six forms of energy
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heat, light, chemical, electrical, mechanical, nuclear
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Kinetic molecular theory of gases (1)
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consists of many particles (atoms or molecule) motion is random no attractive forces
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kinetic molecular theory of gases (2)
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space betweeen particles very large compared to size of particles
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Kinetic molecular theory of gases (3)
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kinetic energy of average particle proportional to temperature in kelvins
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kinetic molecular theory of gases (4)
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energy total after collsions results in NO loss of kinetic energy
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kinetic molecular theory of gases is based on the assumpts for
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ideal gases
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Three factors that are involved (when amount of gas is kept constant)
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pressure, volume, temperature (kelvins)
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when doing experiments you want to have only a single
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variable
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pressure
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the result of collisions of particles with sides of containers
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the more frequent and stronger the collisions of particles
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the higher the pressure
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psi
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pressure per unit area (pounds per square inch)
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Conversion factor from atm to mmHg
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1 atm = 760 mmHg
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conversion factor from psi to atm
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1 atm = 14.7 psi
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conversion factors from atm to torr
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1 atm = 760 torr
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conversion factor atm to bars
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1 atm = 1.01 bars
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conversion factor from kPal to atm
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1 atm = 101 kPal
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is temperature the same thing as heat?
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no
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heat is a form of
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energy
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temperature can tell you the direction of
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energy (heat) flow
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absolute zero
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0 kelvin
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what happens at absolute zero?
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all motion stops…particles have NO kinetic energy
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water freezing and boiling point (F)
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32, 212
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water freezing and boiling point in celsius
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0, 100
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water freezing and boiling point in kelvins
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273.15, 373.15
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boyles law involves the relationship between
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volume and pressure
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the higher the pressure
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the lower the volume
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boyles equation
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P1 V1 = P2 V2
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Charles law involves the relationship between
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volume and temperature
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the higher the temperature
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the higher the volume
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in charles law, what is constant
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pressure
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law of gay-lussac involves the relationship between
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temperature and pressure
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combined gas law
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work when the amount of gas is fixed and the conditions are changed.
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avogadros law involves the relationship between
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moles of gas and volume
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when pressure and temperature are constant
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volume of a gas is directly proprtional to number of moles of gas
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STP
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standard temperature and pressure zero degrees C (273.15k) and 1 atm (760 mmHg)
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standard molar volume
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22.4l/mol
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avogadros law (equation)
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PV=nRT
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A.L. P stands for
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pressure in atmospheres
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A.L. V stands for
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volume in liters
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A.L. T stands for
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temperature in kelvins
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A.L. n stands for
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number of moles
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A.L. R stands for
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0.0821 L atm/mol k universal gas constant
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daltons law deals with
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total and partial pressure
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partial pressures of individual components are additive because
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the particles do not interact
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grahams law is the relationship between
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diffusion rate and molecular weight
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heat energy units
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joules or calories
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one calorie equals
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4.138 Joules
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endothermic
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heat taken in (melting, boiling, sublimation)
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exothermic
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heat given off (freezing, condesation, deposition)
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describe the position and relationship of particles in liquid
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they are in constant motion but are constantly in contact with other molecules
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when particles have enough energy
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molecules can break free of others and go from the liquid to gas phase (overcome intermolecular forces)
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vapor
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the gas molecules in equilibrium with a liquid
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in evaporation, the molecules disperse because
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there is no closed container
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vapor pressure
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the partial pressure of gas molecules in equilibrium with the liquid
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vapor pressure is dependant on what two factors?
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identity of the liquid and teh temperature
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is vapor pressure a physical or chemical property?
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physical
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what is the relationship between vapor pressure and intermolecular forces operating
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they are inversly related
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the stronger the intermolecular forces the (blank) the vapor pressure
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lower
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what happens when vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure what happens?
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the liquid boils
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the boiling point is dependant on
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atmospheric pressure
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melting point
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temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid
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sublimation
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solid changes directly into a gas withour going through the liquid phase
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problems involving temperature chage but no phase change need to take what into account?
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specific heat
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specific heat
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amounf of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance one degree
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Heat =
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specific heat times mass times temp change
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units used for specific heat
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joules per gram degrees celcius or calories per gram degrees celcius
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which has a higher specific heat, water or metal
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water
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heat of fusion
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quantity of head required to completely melt a substance once it has reached its melting point
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heat of vaporization
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quantity of heat needed to vaporize a liquid once it has reached its boiling point
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when a substance is melting or boiling, the temperature
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is constant
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when doing change of state problems, each step will be one of two teypes of problems:
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specific heat or phase change
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Daltons law deals with
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partial pressure
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partial pressures of individual components are additive because
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the particles do not interact

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