During the Validate Scope process, inspection is used to ensure work and deliverables meet:
A Design specifications and customer expectations.
B Requirements and product acceptance criteria.
C Customer expectations and requirements.
D Design specifications, customer expectations and acceptance criteria.
Choices A, C and D include meeting customer expectations. This is addressed in Project Quality Management. The question is in the context of Project Scope Management. Inspection (Choice B) includes activities such as measuring, examining, and validating to determine whether work and deliverables meet requirements and product acceptance criteria. PMBOK® 18.104.22.168, pg 135
In Project Scope Management, which tool or technique could be used with both Collect Requirements and Define Scope?
A Alternatives identification
C Group creativity techniques
D Facilitated workshops
The only tool and technique used with both processes is facilitated workshops. PMBOK® 5, pg 106
Control Scope is:
A Concerned with enforcing the factors that create project scope changes and controlling the impact of those changes.
B Concerned with monitoring the status of the project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline.
C Concerned with making sure that extra work is not billed to your project.
D Concerned with keeping all stakeholders satisfied.
By definition, Control Scope is the process of monitoring the status of the project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline. Choice B is the correct answer. PMBOK® 5.6, pg 136
Which of the following is NOT true about a work package?
A Can be subdivided into lower level WBS components
B Can be cost estimated
C Can be scheduled
D Can be monitored and controlled
The planned work is contained within the lowest level WBS components, which are called work packages. A work package can be scheduled, cost estimated, monitored, and controlled. PMBOK® 5.4, pg 126
All of the following are considered requirements classifications EXCEPT:
A Quality requirements
B Performance requirements.
C Business requirements.
D Transition requirements
The context of this question is Project Scope Management, and in particular, Collect Requirements. Performance requirements (Choice B) would be part of Project Quality Management and is the outlier, making it the correct answer choice. PMBOK® 5.2, pg 112
A configuration management system is a subsystem of the overall project management system that does NOT include:
A Documented procedures used to apply technical and administrative direction and surveillance.
B Fundamentals of the DIKW (Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom) model used in the field of Data Management.
C The documentation, tracking systems, and defined approval levels necessary for authorizing and controlling changes.
D Procedures to identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a product, result, service, or component.
Choices A, C and D are all related to a configuration management system which is a subsystem of the overall project management system. It is a collection of formal documented procedures used to apply technical and administrative direction and surveillance to: identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a product, result, service, or component; control any changes to such characteristics; record and report each change and its implementation status; and support the audit of the products, results, or components to verify conformance to requirements. It includes the documentation, tracking systems, and defined approval levels necessary for authorizing and controlling changes (PMBOK® Glossary, pg 532). The DIKW (Choice B) is associated with the field of Knowledge Management, not Data Management, and its FUNDAMENTALS wouldn’t be in the configuration management system anyway. PMBOK® X1.5, pg 466
All of the following are NOT examples of a project requirement classification EXCEPT:
A Pareto chart.
B Relationship with the seller.
C Business requirements, transition requirements, project requirements.
D Funding limitation.
A Pareto chart (Choice A) is used to identify the frequency of outcomes generated by each identified cause. Although the relationship with the seller (Choice B) may be important to maintain, it would not typically be considered a project requirement classification. A funding limitation (Choice D) is a constraint. Each of the items listed in Choice C are examples of project requirements classifications. PMBOK® 5.2, pg 112
An input to Define Scope is:
A Expert judgment.
B Alternatives identification.
C Project charter.
D Project scope statement.
Expert judgment (Choice A) and alternatives identification (Choice B) are tools and techniques of the Define Scope process. The project scope statement (Choice D) is an output of the Define Scope process. The project charter (Choice C) is an input to the Define Scope process and is the correct answer. PMBOK® 5.3.1, pgs 121-122
All of the following are inputs to the Create WBS process EXCEPT:
A Work breakdown structure.
B Project scope statement.
C Requirements documentation.
D Organizational process assets.
The work breakdown structure is an output of the Create WBS process. PMBOK® 5.4, pgs 125-126
All of the following are NOT used to assess the magnitude of project scope variation as part of the Control Scope process EXCEPT:
A Chart of accounts.
B Gantt chart.
C Pareto chart.
D Variance analysis.
Variance analysis (Choice D) is a method using project performance measurements to assess the magnitude of variation from the original scope baseline. Important aspects of project scope control include determining the cause and degree of variance relative to the scope baseline and deciding whether corrective or preventive action is required. PMBOK® 22.214.171.124, pg 139
The approved detailed project scope statement and its associated WBS and WBS dictionary are the __________ for the project.
A Accepted deliverables
B Scope baseline
C Organizational process assets
By definition, the approved detailed project scope statement and its associated WBS and WBS dictionary are the scope baseline for the project. This baselined scope is used as a basis of comparison while performing controlling processes. PMBOK® 5, pg 105, last paragraph
What is the BEST Collect Requirements tool or technique to use to obtain requirements from product users that have difficulty or are reluctant to articulate their requirements?
B Questionnaires and surveys
C Focus groups
All the choices are valid tools and techniques for collecting requirements; however, observations (Choice D) would be the BEST option for the described scenario since the other three choices require active participation by the product users. PMBOK® 126.96.36.199, pg 116
Which of the following is NOT an input to Define Scope?
A WBS dictionary
B Requirements documentation
C Project charter
D Organizational process assets
Choices B, C and D are all inputs to the Define Scope process so they cannot be the correct answer. The WBS dictionary (Choice A) is NOT an input, but an output of Create WBS and therefore is the correct answer. PMBOK® 5, pg 106
Which of the following processes brings objectivity to the acceptance process and increases the chance of acceptance by the customer or sponsor?
A Stakeholder analysis.
B Control Scope.
C Define Scope.
D Validate Scope.
Validate Scope is the process of formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables. A key benefit is that it brings objectivity to the acceptance process. PMBOK® 5.5, pg 133
You have just signed on with a pharmaceutical company as a new employee. As the project manager for a new project, you learn that project charters are not used in your new company. You discuss this with your boss and inform her that in your former company, you always had a project charter for every new project. She suggests that you and the project team gather comparable information that can then be used to develop the detailed ________________.
A Work breakdown structure
B Project scope statement
C Project plan
D Project cost estimate
If a project charter is not used in a performing organization, then comparable information needs to be acquired or developed, and used to develop the detailed project scope statement. PMBOK® 188.8.131.52, pg 121
Caroline and Fred executed all their work according to the documented requirements and generated work performance data that made them realized a scope change was required. Of course, the project management plan had to be update. Updating the project management plan because of this scope change means:
A Approving deliverables.
B Approving change requests.
C Re-baselining the activities.
D The project management plan is being progressively elaborated.
Approving deliverables (Choice A) or “accepted deliverables” is an output of Validate Scope and would not require a project management plan update. Scope, cost and schedule are baselined, but the activities themselves are not baselined (Choice C). Progressive elaboration (Choice D) is not the best choice because it is about producing more accurate and complete PLANS that result from the successive iterations of the planning process, not necessarily because of unplanned changes during execution (unplanned changes would be addressed with change requests). Choice B is the BEST answer. If the approved change requests have an effect on the project scope, then scope statement, the WBS, and the WBS dictionary (collectively known as scope baseline) are revised and reissued to reflect the approved changes. Note that activities are not part of the WBS and the scope baseline is part of the project management plan. PMBOK® 184.108.40.206, pg 140
Collect Requirements is:
A Subdividing the major project deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable components.
B Formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables.
C Identifying which standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them.
D Determining, documenting, and managing stakeholder needs and requirements to meet project objectives.
Choice A is about creating the work breakdown structure which is performed after collecting requirements. Choice B is part of the Validate Scope process. Choice C is part of the Plan Quality Management process. Choice D is the definition of Collect Requirements and is the correct answer. PMBOK® 5, pg 105
Which of the following is an input to Control Scope?
A Project scope statement
C Work performance reports
D Organizational process assets
Choices A and B are associated with the Create WBS process. Note that the project scope statement and the WBS are just two of three components required to make a scope baseline. Choice C, work performance reports (which is not the same as work performance data), is an input to Perform Integrated Change Control, Manage Project Team, Manage Communications, Control Risks, and Control Procurements. Organizational process assets (Choice D) is an input to the Control Scope process and is the BEST answer. PMBOK® 5, pg 106
Systems analysis, systems engineering, value engineering and value analysis are techniques used in __________ analysis.
C Critical path
Product analysis includes techniques such as product breakdown, systems analysis, requirements analysis, systems engineering, value engineering, and value analysis. PMBOK® 220.127.116.11, pg 1122
All of the following are outputs of Control Scope EXCEPT:
A Organizational process assets updates.
B Change requests.
C Work performance data.
D Scope baseline updates.
Choices A, B and D are all outputs of Control Scope. Choice C is the correct answer because it is not an output of Control Scope. In Control Scope, work performance data (raw observations and measurements) are subjected to variance analysis (tools and techniques) as an input, and the associated output will be work performance information. PMBOK® 18.104.22.168, pg 139
An authorized modification to the agreed-upon project scope baseline, as defined by the approved project scope statement, WBS and WBS dictionary is:
A A requested change.
B An approved change request.
C A corrective action.
D An error.
Approved change requests are the documented, authorized changes to expand or reduce project scope. PMBOK® 22.214.171.124, pg 82 and 126.96.36.199, pg 140
In order to generate a WBS for a new project, it would be helpful to:
A Know the project’s cost baseline.
B Review the variance analysis.
C Start with a work breakdown structure template.
D Use a reputable project management software product and then publish the final result for the team members to receive their assignments.
Although each project is unique, a WBS from a previous project can often be used as a template for a new project. Some projects will resemble other prior projects to some extent, allowing full or partial WBS reuse. PMBOK® 5.4, pg 125
You are teaching a class about project scope management. One of your students raises his hand and asks you why this is important to carry out in the “real world.” Your BEST response would be:
A To explain to the student that scope management MUST be done, because it is mentioned in the PMBOK®.
B To explain to the student that it would be considered best practice to conduct project scope management on the job in order to ensure that the project team has formal guidance on how the project’s requirements and scope will be defined, documented, verified and controlled.
C To ask the student to tell the class what he thinks the right answer is.
D To explain to the student that it is important to do so the critical path of the project can be defined and entered into the project management information system.
Choice B is the correct answer. Project Scope Management provides guidance on how project scope will be defined, documented, verified, and controlled by the project team. PMBOK® 5, pg 105
The project stakeholders have a strong and common understanding of the products that an in-house project is expected to produce. Given this, the BEST WBS decomposition structure to use would:
A Have phases of the project life cycle as the first level of decomposition.
B Have major deliverables as the first level of decomposition.
C Employ subprojects which may be developed by organizations outside the project team.
D Focus on organizational units.
Choice D is not a WBS decomposition structure. Choices A and C are decomposition structures; however, a deliverables structure (Choice B) would be best for the scenario described since the team has a strong and common understanding of the deliverables (products). PMBOK® 5.4.2, pgs 128-131
An output of Create WBS is:
A WBS dictionary.
B Work breakdown structure template.
C Approved change requests.
D Resource breakdown structure.
The work breakdown structure template is a tool used to create a WBS. Approved change requests are an input to the Create WBS process. The resource breakdown structure may be used to identify and analyze project human resource assignments and should not be confused with the work breakdown structure. The WBS dictionary is an output of the Create WBS process. Choice A is the correct answer. PMBOK® 188.8.131.52, pgs 131-132
A Subdividing the major project deliverables to the same level of detail in order to be able to accurately estimate cost and resources.
B Subdividing the major project deliverables to a consistent level of detail regardless of when those deliverables are expected to occur.
C Identifying the deliverables and related work needed to produce those deliverables.
D Using the same approach within each branch of the WBS.
The work package level is the lowest level in the WBS, and is the point at which the cost and duration for the work can be reliably estimated. The level of detail for work packages will vary with the size and complexity of the project. Decomposition may not be possible for a deliverable or subcomponent that will be accomplished far into the future. Using different approaches within each branch of the WBS may be required to meet the needs of the project. PMBOK® 5.4.2, pgs 128-131
Sanjay, the project manager for a new “green” product development effort, is unable to complete a detailed decomposition since a major product component will not be fully designed for another year. Given this, he decides it is best to use:
A Critical path method.
B Contingency planning.
C Rolling wave planning.
D Idea/Mind mapping.
Decomposition may not be possible for a deliverable or subproject that will be accomplished far into the future. The project management team usually waits until the deliverable or subproject is clarified so the details for the WBS can be developed. This technique is sometimes referred to as rolling wave planning. PMBOK® 184.108.40.206, pg 131
The process of creating a scope management plan that documents how the project scope will be defined, documented, validated and controlled is:
A Project Scope Management.
B Plan Scope Management.
C Validate Scope.
D Define Scope.
Choice A is a Knowledge Area, not a process. Choices C and D are part of Project Scope Management, but not about planning. Choice B is the process wherein the scope management plan is created and is the correct answer. PMBOK® 5.1, pg 107
The __________ is compared to the actual results to determine if a change, corrective action, or preventive action is necessary.
A Requirements traceability matrix
B Project schedule
C Scope management plan
D Scope baseline
The project management plan contains the scope baseline that is used to control scope. The scope baseline is compared to actual results to determine if a change, corrective action, or preventive action is necessary. PMBOK® 220.127.116.11, pg 138
Fred has been asked by Nancy, the project’s executive sponsor, to obtain the project stakeholders’ formal acceptance of the completed project scope and associated deliverables. Fred has arranged a session to review which of the following with the stakeholders?
A Verified deliverables
B Accepted deliverables
C Recommended corrective actions
D Work breakdown structure
The executive sponsor has called for a formal acceptance/approval of completed (verified) work, so Choices C and D would not be the purpose of the meeting. Choice B (Accepted deliverables) will be the result of this meeting (hopefully) AFTER they review the verified deliverables (Choice A) via the Validate Scope process. PMBOK® 5.5, pg 134
Which of the following is NOT true about a work breakdown structure?
A Work not represented in the WBS can be found in the scope management plan.
B Each descending level represents increasing definition of detail.
C Each component is clearly defined and is assigned to an individual or unit who accepts responsibility for its completion.
D It is used to determine the project’s cost estimate.
Choices B, C and D are all true about a WBS. ‘Work not represented in the work breakdown structure is not part of the project, so Choice A is wrong and therefore the correct answer. The scope management plan provides guidance on how project scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled and verified by the project management team. PMBOK® 18.104.22.168, pgs 109-110
Approved change requests can mandate updates to all of the following EXCEPT:
A Work breakdown structure and WBS dictionary.
B Enterprise environmental factors.
C Scope baseline.
D Project management plan.
If the approved change requests have an effect on the project scope, then the scope statement, the WBS, and the WBS dictionary (scope baseline) are revised and reissued to reflect the approved changes. When the scope baseline changes, the project management plan will be updated, too (PMBOK® 22.214.171.124, pg 140). ‘The correct answer is enterprise environmental factors (Choice B) because although they can influence the Perform Integrated Change Control process (PMBOK® 126.96.36.199, pg 98), they are not changed using change requests.
All of the following are NOT the result of collecting requirements EXCEPT:
A Stakeholder register.
B Documentation and prioritization of the project stakeholders’ business needs.
C Documentation of the specialized knowledge or training from the most experienced individuals within the performing organization.
D Organizational process assets.
A stakeholder register (Choice A) is an input to the Collect Requirements process. Choice C addresses expert judgment, which is a technique. Organizational process assets (Choice D) is an INPUT to several Project Scope Management processes. Choice B is an output (result) of Collect Requirements and therefore is the correct answer. PMBOK® 188.8.131.52, pgs 117-118
Configuration management activities for requirements are most likely specified in which of the following?
A Requirements management plan
B Requirements documentation
C Quality management plan
D Requirements traceability matrix
Components of the requirements management plan can include configuration management activities such as how changes to the product will be initiated and how impacts will be analyzed. PMBOK® 184.108.40.206, pg 110
You are the project manager responsible for your company’s most expensive R&D project. The current SPI for your project is 1.06, and the current CPI for your project is 1.05. Your boss enters your office and informs you that the executive governance committee has decided to terminate your project due to recent market changes. You are surprised, but understand the importance of the business decision. During this conversation, your boss requests that you to set up a meeting with your contracted vendor to agree upon and document all of the work that has been completed up to this point. Your boss has just asked you to conduct _______________.
A Validate Scope.
B Define Scope.
C Conflict resolution.
D Contract administration.
The scope has already been defined, so Choice B is not correct. Choice C is not the best option since no conflict is suggested in the question. Choice D, contract administration, is not a PMBOK® process. If the project is terminated early, the Validate Scope process should be used to determine accepted deliverables and make updates to project documents. Choice A is the correct answer. PMBOK® 5.5, pgs 133-134
All of the following are NOT true EXCEPT:
A There is always a 1-to-1 association of control accounts to work packages.
B A control account will include one work package.
C Work packages must be associated with one control account.
D Control accounts must be associated with one work package.
A control account is a management control point where scope, cost, and schedule are integrated and compared to the earned value for performance measurement. Control accounts are placed at selected management points in the WBS. Each control account may include one or more work packages, but each of the work packages must be associated with only one control account. PMBOK® 220.127.116.11, pg 132
Your team needs to verify that the deliverables being produced and accepted are included in the approved project scope. Which of the following will be MOST helpful?
A Work breakdown structure dictionary
B Risk register
C Project scope statement
D Scope baseline
The WBS dictionary (Choice A) has a detailed description of work and technical documentation for each WBS element, and the scope statement (Choice C) describes the work that will be performed. Both are part of the scope baseline (Choice D) and inputs to Validate Scope. Choice D is the BEST answer. PMBOK® 18.104.22.168, pgs 131-132
The work breakdown structure is __________ -oriented.
Decomposition is a technique for creating the work breakdown structure. The actual work breakdown structure is a deliverable-oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work to be executed by the project team. PMBOK® 5.4, pg 126
Andrea’s project has been formally approved and she has a signed project charter. She is starting to plan the scope and will create:
A Requirements documentation
B Focus groups
C The final project scope statement
D Scope management plan
Because she is just starting her scope planning, she is in the Collect Requirements process. Focus groups (Choice B) is a tool and technique, not something she will create. Choice C is not a PMBOK® term. She already has a scope management plan (Choice D). Choice A is the correct answer. Requirements documentation will be created during the Collect Requirements process. PMBOK® 5, pg 106
All of the following are NOT true EXCEPT:
A Validate Scope must precede Control Quality.
B Control Quality must precede Validate Scope.
C Validate Scope may be performed in parallel with Control Quality.
D Validate Scope and Control Quality must be performed concurrently.
The Validate Scope process and the Control Quality process can be performed in parallel. PMBOK® 5.5, pg 134
Ed, the project manager for a custom software development project, is preparing for a project team meeting that was called to validate scope. What does he need for the meeting?
A Project management plan, requirements documentation, requirements traceability matrix, verified deliverables
B Project management plan, requirements documentation, quality management plan, verified deliverables
C Project schedule, requirements documentation, requirements traceability matrix, verified deliverables
D Project schedule, requirements documentation, requirements traceability matrix, accepted deliverables
The project manager will need all the inputs to the Validate Scope process. The inputs are project management plan, requirements documentation, requirements traceability matrix, verified deliverables and work performance data. PMBOK® 5.5, pg 133
Senior managers at a major financials services company have become extremely frustrated with the products delivered from several recent business critical projects. These products seldom seem to meet the customer’s expectations even when all of the product requirements appear to have technically been met. A project management consultant assessed the situation and recommended that more rigor should be applied to:
B The development of the requirements management plan.
C The development of the requirements documentation.
D Group decision making techniques.
Choices A, B and D do not have as direct an impact to delivered products meeting user needs as Choice C does. The situation is not about managing the requirements; it is about the actual requirements not addressing the business need. After all, the requirements were “technically met,” so they must not have been the best requirements in the first place. Baselined requirements that are not unambiguous, traceable, complete, consistent and acceptable to key stakeholders will likely result in products that do not meet user/stakeholder expectations. PMBOK® 22.214.171.124, pgs 117-118
The following is NOT an output of Create WBS:
A WBS dictionary.
B Scope baseline.
D Accepted deliverables.
Accepted deliverables is an output of Validate Scope. PMBOK® 126.96.36.199, pg 135
An input to Validate Scope is:
A Define Scope.
C Requirements traceability matrix.
D Accepted deliverables.
Define Scope (Choice A) is the process for developing a detailed description of the project and product (PMBOK® 5.3, pg 120). Inspection (Choice B) is a technique used with the Validate Scope process (PMBOK® 188.8.131.52, pg 135). Accepted deliverables (Choice D) result from (is an output of) Validate Scope. Choice C is an input and is the correct answer. PMBOK® 184.108.40.206, pg 134
Fran is a project manager who is validating her systems analyst’s Define Scope work products. Which of the following work products should Fran expect to see?
A Project constraints, project objectives, and a prioritized list of risks
B Project exclusions and acceptance criteria
C Project boundaries, a project scope description and scope baseline
D Project scope statement, project cost requirements and a project team list
A prioritized list of risks is generated after the Identify Risks process is completed, so Choice A is not the answer. Scope baseline is an output of the Create WBS process, so Choice C is not the answer. Choice D is not correct because “project team list” is not an input, tool or output of any process, and cost requirements are not known until the Estimate Costs and Determine Budget processes are performed. Requirements documentation (Choice B) is the correct answer. PMBOK® 220.127.116.11, pg 123-124
An output of Validate Scope that would be forwarded to the Close Project or Phase process would be:
A Change requests.
B Approved deliverables.
C Lessons learned.
D The risk register.
Accepted deliverables are deliverables that meet the acceptance criteria and are formally signed off and APPROVED by the customer or sponsor. Formal documentation received from the customer or sponsor acknowledging formal stakeholder acceptance (approval) of the project’s deliverables is forwarded to the Close Project or Phase process. PMBOK® 18.104.22.168, pg 135
Product acceptance criteria defines the __________.
A Required product configuration that determines the project’s success
B Scope of the project
C Process and criteria for accepting completed products
D Project assumptions
The acceptance criteria are a set of conditions that is required to be met before deliverables are accepted, and is an output of the Define Scope process (part of project scope statement). PMBOK® 22.214.171.124, pg 123
Approved change requests that impact project scope may cause the project scope statement to be revised and reissued, which then becomes:
A A variance from the project scope baseline.
B The new project scope baseline.
C Requested changes.
D Additional cost added to the project.
If approved change requests have an effect upon the project scope, then the corresponding cost and schedule baselines are revised and reissued to reflect the approved changes. The updated project scope statement becomes the new project scope baseline. PMBOK® 126.96.36.199, pg 140
Which of the following would NOT be an output of Define Scope?
A Updated requirements traceability matrix
B Updated stakeholder register
C Product acceptance criteria
Choices A and B (as project documents) and C (in project scope statement) are all outputs of Define Scope (PMBOK® 5.3.3, pgs 123-125). Choice D is the correct answer because it is NOT an output of Define Scope. The WBS is an output of the Create WBS process. PMBOK® 188.8.131.52 pg 132
David, the project manager, was asked by his project sponsor how he plans to measure completion of the project scope. David’s BEST reply should be:
A By determining the percent complete of the accepted deliverables.
B By conducting a facilitated workshop with project stakeholders.
C By reviewing work performance information.
D By measuring against the project management plan.
Choices A, B and C are all part of inputs, tools and techniques or outputs for Project Scope Management, but they are not used to measure completion of project scope. Completion of the project scope is measured against the project management plan. Choice D is the correct answer. PMBOK® 5, pg 106, top paragraph
Jenny has responsibility for updating the project’s scope baseline. Which of the following would she use to update the baseline?
A Traceability matrix
B Verified deliverables
C Change control board
D Facilitated workshops
Requirements traceability matrix and verified deliverables (Choices A and B) are inputs to the Validate Scope process, and in this question, it has already been concluded that the scope needs to be changed (not verified). Facilitated workshops (Choice D) is a tool and technique used to collect requirements. Changing the baseline is about formally controlling the project scope which is accomplished through the Perform Integrated Change Control process, which includes a change control board. Choice C is the correct answer. PMBOK® 4.5, pg 96
Project Scope Management consists of 5 major processes. Which is NOT one of these processes?
A Create WBS
B Validate Scope
C Define Activities
D Collect Requirements
The Project Scope Management processes are Collect Requirements, Define Scope, Create WBS, Validate Scope and Control Scope (PMBOK® 5, pg 105). Define Activities is a Project Time Management process. PMBOK® 6, pg 141
Which of the following is NOT a technique used with facilitated workshops?
A The Delphi technique
B Joint application design (JAD)
C Quality function deployment (QFD)
D Voice of the customer (VOC)
Choices B, C, and D are all valid for use with facilitated workshops (PMBOK® 184.108.40.206, pg 114). The Delphi technique is considered a group creativity technique. PMBOK® 220.127.116.11, pg 115
The document generated by the Create WBS process that supports the WBS is called the __________.
A WBS dictionary
B Risk breakdown structure
C Staffing plan
D Scope statement
The WBS dictionary (Choice A) is a document that provides detailed deliverable, activity, and scheduling information about each component in the WBS. The WBS dictionary is a document that supports the WBS. Information in the WBS dictionary may include, but is not limited to: code of account identifier, assumptions and constraints, resources required, and cost estimates. PMBOK® 18.104.22.168, pg 132
The work breakdown structure:
A Is a list of categories and sub-categories within which risks may arise for a typical project.
B Is a hierarchically organized depiction of the resources by type to be used on the project.
C Defines the scope of the contract.
D Represents the work specified in the current approved project scope statement.
Choice A describes the risk breakdown structure, Choice B describes the resource breakdown structure, and Choice C describes the contract statement of work. The work breakdown structure organizes and defines the total scope of the project, and represents the work specified in the current approved project scope statement and therefore Choice D is the correct answer. PMBOK® 5.4, pg 126
The process of developing a detailed project scope statement as the basis for future project decisions is known as:
A Create WBS.
B Plan Scope.
C Define Scope.
D Control Scope.
Create WBS (Choice A) and Control Scope (Choice D) are defined processes, but Plan Scope (Choice B) is not a defined process. By definition, Define Scope (Choice C) is the process of developing a detailed description of the project during planning and is the correct answer. PMBOK® 5, pg 105
Define Scope techniques include:
A Alternatives generation.
D Configuration management.
Generating alternatives by using brainstorming, for example, is a technique used to generate different approaches to execute and perform the work of the project. PMBOK® 22.214.171.124, pg 123
A __________ is a collection of formal documented procedures that define how modifications to the project deliverables and documentation are managed and controlled.
A Scope management plan
B Configuration management system
C Change control system
D WBS dictionary
A scope management plan (Choice A) is the document that describes how the project scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled and verified (PMBOK® Glossary, pg 562). The configuration management system (Choice B) is a subsystem of the overall project management system. It is a collection of formal document procedures used to apply technical and administrative direction and surveillance (PMBOK® Glossary, pg 532). The WBS dictionary (Choice D) is a document that describes each component in the work breakdown structure (PMBOK® Glossary, pg 567). Choice C is the correct answer. PMBOK® Glossary, pg 531
Which of the following CANNOT be an output of Control Scope?
A Lessons learned
B WBS updates
C Variance analysis
D Scope variances and causes
Choices A, B and D are all possible outputs of the Control Scope process. (Note that scope variances and causes is work performance information.) Variance analysis (Choice C) is the correct answer because it is not an output, but rather a technique using project performance measurements to assess the magnitude of variation relative to the scope baseline. Important aspects of project scope control include determining the cause and degree of variance and deciding whether corrective or preventive action is required. PMBOK® 126.96.36.199, pg 139
You are the project manager for a clinical drug trial project. During planning, one of your team members comes to you to tell you that you need to add another task under the protocol deliverable, because her boss would like to see an additional review conducted by an independent entity. Your BEST response would be:
A To tell the team member that no additional tasks can be added, because the scope of the project can never be changed once it is generated.
B To ask the team member to justify her comments to your boss.
C To meet with the team member and her boss to explain that the additional review would be great to add to the project, but it is not necessary and will likely add cost and time to the project.
D To meet with the team member and her boss to learn if the additional review is a project requirement.
Change is inevitable, and potential changes should be given due consideration. If the additional review is determined to be a project requirement, it will be documented in an update to a project document as an output of Control Scope. PMBOK® 5.6, pg 136
The project manager and the business analyst have been tasked with collecting cross-functional requirements as quickly and as thoroughly as possible from several stakeholders while reconciling differences. Which tool or technique of the Collect Requirements process is the BEST for them to use?
B Focus groups
C Facilitated workshops
D Group creativity techniques
All the choices are valid tools and techniques; however, facilitated workshops are best for the described scenario. PMBOK® 5.2.2, pgs 114-115
During the Define Scope process, the primary customer informs the project manager that the project team must complete the project in the next 60 days. In which section of the project scope statement should she capture this information?
A Project deliverables
B Project exclusions
C Product acceptance criteria
D Project constraints
Project constraints lists and describes the specific project constraints associated with the project scope that limits the teams options, for example, a predefined budget or any imposed dates or schedule milestones that are issued by the customer or the performing organization. PMBOK® 188.8.131.52, pg 124
All of the following are NOT true about decomposition EXCEPT:
A WBS components represent verifiable products, services, or results.
B Major deliverables and subprojects should comprise the last level of decomposition.
C To ensure proper control, subprojects should not be developed by organizations outside the project team.
D The project team should always decompose to the maximum amount of detail possible.
Major deliverables and subprojects should comprise the first level of decomposition, so Choice B is not correct. Subprojects may be developed by organizations outside the project team and may be contracted, so Choice C is not correct. The project team should seek a balance between too little and too much in the level of detail in order to avoid non-productive management effort, so Choice D is not correct. Choice A is the correct answer. PMBOK® 5.4.2, pgs 128-131
Factors that limit the team’s options, such as a budget or schedule milestones that have predefined completion dates that are required either by management or contract are __________.
A Project constraints
B Mandatory milestones
Project constraints lists and describes the specific project constraints associated with the project scope that limits the team’s options. PMBOK® 184.108.40.206, pg 124
The __________ describes, in detail, the project’s deliverables and also work required to create those deliverables.
A Scope management plan
B Project charter
C Project management plan
D Project scope statement
The project scope statement describes, in detail, the project’s deliverables and also work required to create those deliverables. It also provides a common understanding of the project scope among project stakeholders. PMBOK® 5.3.3,1, pg 123
The product scope description describes:
A The configuration of the expected product.
B The work package listed in the work breakdown structure.
C The characteristics of the product, service, or result described in the project charter and requirements documentation.
D The work and only the work required to complete the project.
My Answer: C
The product scope description progressively elaborates the characteristics of the product, service, or result described in the project charter and requirements documentation. PMBOK® 220.127.116.11, pg 123
Inspection is a technique that includes:
A Identifying early and late start dates, as well as early and late finish dates, for the uncompleted portions of project schedule activities.
B Directing, managing, performing and accomplishing the project work, providing the deliverables and providing work performance information.
C Examining or measuring to determine whether an activity, component, product, result, or service conforms to specified requirements.
D The assurance that a product, service, or system meets the needs of the customer and other identified stakeholders.
Choice A is the definition of schedule network analysis, which is a technique carried out as part of the Develop Schedule process (PMBOK® 18.104.22.168, pg 176). Choice B is the definition of the term “execute” (PMBOK® Glossary, pg 539). Choice D is the definition of validation and should not be confused with inspection that is carried out to complete verification (PMBOK® Glossary, pg 566). Choice C is the correct answer. PMBOK® 22.214.171.124, pg 135
Jim, the project manager for a large merger integration project, is in the process of defining his scope. He has leveraged consultants, subject matter experts and members of professional organizations. He is using what type of tool or technique?
A Alternatives generation
B Nominal group
C Expert judgment
D Focus groups
Nominal group technique (Choice B) is a group creativity technique used with Collect Requirements. Focus groups (Choice D) also is used with Collect Requirements. The context of the question is the Define Scope process, so neither of these are the correct answer. Choices A and C are both tools and techniques used with the Define Scope process. Although alternatives generation (Choice A) is used with the Define Scope process, the question does not indicate HOW Jim leveraged his resources, so we cannot assume it was for defining different approaches to execute and perform the work. Expert judgment (Choice C), therefore, is the BEST answer. PMBOK® 126.96.36.199, pgs 122-123
An output of Control Scope is:
A Accepted deliverables.
B Project charter.
C Project management plan updates.
D Project scope statement.
Accepted deliverables (Choice A) is an output of Validate Scope. The project charter (Choice B) is an input to Collect Requirements and Define Scope. The project scope statement (Choice D) is an output of Define Scope. Of all the choices, the only output of Control Scope is project management plan update. PMBOK® 5, pg 106
All of the following are true about the work breakdown structure EXCEPT:
A It is a deliverable-oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work to be executed by the project team, to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables.
B It is an output of Collect Requirements.
C Each descending level of the WBS represents an increasingly detailed definition of the project work.
D The planned work within the lowest levels can be scheduled, cost estimated, monitored, and controlled.
The work breakdown structure is an output of the Create WBS process, not the Collect Requirements process. PMBOK® 5.4, pg 125