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Chapter 5 Diseases and Disorders of the Eye and Ear

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Diagnostic findings for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo
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the sensation of the room spinning and lack of coordination. nystagmus. decreased hearing.
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Infection or inflammation in the semicircular canals is called
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labyrinthitis.
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Symptoms of neoplasms of the ear commonly
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progressive hearing loss and discharge from the ear. a visible mass or lesion. facial paralysis.
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Ankylosing of the stapes is called
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otosclerosis
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Insertion of a myringotomy (tympanostomy) tube as a treatment for otitis media
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myringotomy
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Cause of sensorineural deafness, also referred to as occupational hearing loss
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loud noise. the aging process. the side effects of certain medication
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Placement of sharp objects into the ear canal, an explosion, a severe middle ear infection can
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a ruptured tympanic membrane
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Chronic disease of the inner ear marked by a recurring syndrome of vertigo, tinnitus, progressive hearing loss, and a sensation of pressure in the ear
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Ménière’s disease
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Ototoxicity caused by drugs or chemicals affects the _____ cranial nerve
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eighth
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Wet form of macular degeneration is described
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a serious form that can result in damage to the retina, resulting in loss of central vision
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Adult-onset macular degeneration
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Early evidence of AMD, such as tiny drusen, can be seen during a routine eye examination by an ophthalmologist. Patients with AMD may report seeing wavy lines when looking at lines that are straight. With progression of AMD, reading and activities requiring sharp vision become impossible.
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Major cause of blindness in the United States
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glaucoma
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Vision impairment as a result of old age and the loss of elasticity
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presbyopia
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Vision impairment as a result of old age and the loss of elasticity in the lens
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presbyopia
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Early symptoms of retinal detachment consist of
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new floaters and light flashes
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Macular degeneration is
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caused by progressive deterioration in the macula of the retina. usually related to aging
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Chronic open-angle glaucoma
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It is the most treatable cause of blindness
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Conjunctivitis can be caused by
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infection, irritation, allergies, or chemicals
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Inflammatory infections of the hair follicles of the eyelid called hordeolum (styes) are caused by
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staphylococcal bacteria
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Treatment of refractive errors of the eye
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laser surgery. contact lenses. eyeglasses.
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Nystagmus
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It necessitates a complete neurologic evaluation when acquired
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Hyperopia, myopia, and presbyopia are refractive errors that result when the
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eye is unable to focus light effectively
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Inflammation of the thin, transparent membrane covering the visible portion of the sclera and lining the inside of the eyelids results in
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conjunctivitis
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The sensor receptive cells in the retina that function best in dim light and enable night vision are the
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rods
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A defect in the _____ results in difficulty in visual detection of color and fine detail
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cones
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Blepharitis is defined as
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inflammation of the margins of the eyelids involving hair follicles and glands
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Drug therapy used in the treatment of mastoiditis
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antibiotic or sulfonamide therapy
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Treatment of swimmer’s ear
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thoroughly cleaning and drying the ear after swimming
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Causes of ruptured tympanic membrane are
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infection. blow to the ear. nearby explosion
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Labyrinthitis is an inflammation of the
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semicircular canal
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Treatment of BPPV includes
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antihistamines, anticholinergics, and benzodiazepines
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The only treatment that cures otosclerosis
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is a surgical procedure called stapedectomy.
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Diabetic retinopathy occurs most often in those with diabetes
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who do not control their blood glucose levels.
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Lightning strikes may
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cause a ruptured tympanic membrane.
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Benign tumors of the ears
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include acoustic neuromas
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Sensorineural hearing loss
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has noticeable onset
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Audiograms are used
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to diagnose otosclerosis.
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The labyrinth is responsible
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for maintaining balance
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Certain medications
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can cause ototoxicity.
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Cochlear implants
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restore normal hearing
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The ear’s only function is not
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only for hearing
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A cholesteatoma and mastoiditis
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can both be the result of a neglected otitis media
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The major risk with having a ruptured eardrum
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is not from an infection in the inner ear
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The most common tumor of the eye
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is cancer that has metastasized to the eye
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Infants and young children should be evaluated for leukokoria and strabismus
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at well child exams and referred urgently to an ophthalmologist if noted.
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Blepharoptosis
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can’t be ectropion or entropion.
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The internal lens of the eye is elastic and, therefore
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can focus images both near and far
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Symptoms of corneal abrasion or ulcer include
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pain, redness, tearing, and sometimes visual impairment.
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Chronic open-end glaucoma results from a malfunction of the drainage system
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which causes IOP to be raised.
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Sensorineural hearing loss that is caused by
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damage to the cochlea is irreversible; therefore, prevention is essential.
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Serous otitis media
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may be either acute or chronic
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Middle ear is
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normally air-filled