Chapter 4 Whole Body Terminology

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Abdominal Cavity
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The cavity beneath the thoracic cavity; Contains the liver, gallbladder, spleen, stomach, pancreas, intestines, and kidneys
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Anaplasia
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A change in the structure and orientation of cells, charecterized by a loss of differentiation and reversion to a more primitive form.
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Anatomical Position
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The standard reference position for the body as a whole; the person is standing with arms at the sides and palms turned forward; the individual’s head and feet also point forward.
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Anterior
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Pertaining to the front of the body or toward the belly of the body. (frontal plane)
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Aplasia
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A developmental failure resulting in the absence of any organ or tissue. Something didn’t grow while in the womb.
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Cardiac Muscle
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The muscle that makes up the muscular wall of the heart
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Caudal
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Pertaining to the tail
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Cell
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The smallest and most numerous structural unit of living matter.
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Cell Membrane
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The semipermeable barrier that is the outer covering of a cell.
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Cervical Vertebrae
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C1 through C7
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Chromosomes
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THREADLIKE structures within the nucleus that control the functions of growth, repair and reproduction for the body.
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Coccyx
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Tailbone
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Connective Tissue
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Tissue that supports and binds other body tissue and parts
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Cranial
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Pertaining to the skull
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Cranial Cavity
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The cavity that contains the brain.
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Cytology
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The study of cells
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Distal
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Away from or farthest from the trunk (torso) of the body
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Dorsal
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Pertaining to the back
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Dysplasia
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Any abnormal development of tissues or organs
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Epigastric Region
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The region of the abdomen located between the right and left hypochondriac regions in the upper section of the abdomen.
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Epithelial Tissue
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Tissue that covers the internal and external organs of the body.
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Frontal Plane
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Vertical planes passing through the body from the head to the feet dividing the body into front and back portions.
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Genes
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Segments of chromosomes that transmit hereditary characteristics
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Histologists
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Medical scientist who specializes in the study of tissues.
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Hyperplasia
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Increase in the number of cells of a body part.
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Hypochondriac Region
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The right and left regions of the upper abdomen beneath the cartilage of the lower ribs
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Hypogastric Region
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The middle section of the lower abdomen, beneath the umbilical region.
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Hypoplasia
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Incomplete or underdeveloped organ or tissue, usually the result of a decrease in the number of cells.
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Inferior
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Below or downward toward the tail or feet
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Inguinal Region
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The right and left regions of the lower section of the abdomen.
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Lateral
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Toward the side of the body away from the midline of the body.
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Lumbar Region
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The right and left regions of the middle section of the abdomen.
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McBurney’s Point
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Appendix. A point on the right side of the abdomen, about two-thirds of the distance between the umbilicus and the anterior bony prominence of the hip.
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Medial
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Toward the midline of the body
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Mediolateral
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Pertaining to the middle and side of a structure.
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Midline of the Body
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The imaginary line created when the body is divided into equal right and left halves.
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Mitochondria
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Cell organs, provide the energy needed by the cell.
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Muscle Tissue
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The tissue capable of producing movement of the parts and organs of the body by contracting and relaxing its fibers.
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Navel
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The umbilicus; the belly button
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Neoplasia
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The new and abnormal development of cells that maybe benign or malignant
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Nervous Tissue
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Tissue that transmits impulses throughout the body
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Nucleus
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The central controlling body within a living cell that is enclosed within the cell membrane
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Pelvic Cavity
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The lower front cavity of the body, contains the urinary bladder and reproductive organs.
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Peritoneum
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A specific serous membrane that covers the entire abdominal wall of the body
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Plane
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Imaginary slices made through the body
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Posterior
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Pertaining to the back of the body.
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Plantar
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Pertaining to the sole or bottom of the foot
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Prone
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Lying facedown on the abdomen
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Proximal
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Toward or nearest to the trunk of the body
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Sacrum
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The singular triangular shaped bone
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Skeletal Muscle
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Muscle that is attached to bone and is responsible for the movement of the skeleton
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Smooth Muscle
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Muscle found in the walls of the hollow internal organs of the body such as the stomach and intestines.
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Superficial
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Pertaining to the surface of the body or near the surface
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Superior
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Above or upward toward the head.
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Supination
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A movement that allows the palms of the hands to turn upward or forward.
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Supine
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Lying horizontally on the back, face up
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Thoracic Cavity
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The chest cavity, contains the lungs,heart, aorta, esophagaus and trachea
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Tissue
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A group of cells that performs specialized functions
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Transverse Plane
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Dividing the body into superior and inferior portions.
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Umbilical Region
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The region of the abdomen located in the middle section of the abdomen
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Umbilicus
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The navel or also known as belly button
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Ventral
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Pertaining to the front; belly side
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Visceral
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Pertaining to the internal organs

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