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Chapter 4 Questions Essay

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4-1. ________ refers to the study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system and behavior. a. Pseudopharmacology b. Neuropharmacology c. Psychoimmunology d. Neurochemistry e. Psychopharmacology
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e. Psychopharmacology
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4-9. The ________ route of drug administration is most commonly used for humans. a. intraperitoneal b. oral c. intravascular d. topical e. intranasal
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b. oral
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4-12. Neil has accidentally ingested a toxic chemical, which has made him unconscious and will soon kill him. Which route of administration would emergency physicians most likely use to administer an antidote for the toxin? a. intravenous b. oral c. topical d. rectal e. nasal
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a. intravenous
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4-17. Which of the following is true of drug effects? a. Drugs vary widely in their effectiveness. b. Drugs continue to show increases of effect even with super-large doses. c. Heavier animals usually require lower drug doses than do lighter animals. d. A drug has only one effect. e. For a given animal weight, twice as much drug always has twice the effect.
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a. Drugs vary widely in their effectiveness.
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4-18. If the therapeutic index of Drug X is low, physicians a. should take more care in prescribing it due to an increased chance of risks. b. can take less care in prescribing it due to a decreased chance of risks. c. should not prescribe it because it is too dangerous. d. should not prescribe it because it is not effective. e. should prescribe it because it is the most effective drug of its type.
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a. should take more care in prescribing it due to an increased chance of risks.
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4-19. Dose response curves a. indicate whether a physician should prescribe the drug. b. indicate the therapeutic index of the drug. c. demonstrate the effect of a particular dose until the maximum effect is reached. d. show the level of withdrawal an individual may experience when stopping a drug. e. show the level of tolerance an individual may experience when taking a drug.
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c. demonstrate the effect of a particular dose until the maximum effect is reached.
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4-20. Differences in effectiveness between two drugs that share the same site of action would be expected to result from their different a. adverse effects. b. sensitization profiles. c. dynamic capacities. d. affinities for the site of action. e. binding capacities within blood.
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d. affinities for the site of action.
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4-24. ________ refers to an increased behavioral effect of a drug noted with repeated administration. a. Dynamic capacity b. Sensitization c. Inactivation d. Tolerance e. Binding capacity
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b. Sensitization
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4-27. Which of the following is true of drug sensitization? a. Drug sensitization involves a progressive decrease in behavioral actions of a drug over time. b. Drug sensitization is more common than is drug tolerance. c. Drug sensitization is less common than is drug tolerance. d. Drug sensitization involves a decrease in the number of drug receptors. e. Most drugs exhibit some form of sensitization.
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c. Drug sensitization is less common than is drug tolerance.
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4-30. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a. protagonists. b. ligands. c. synergists. d. antagonists. e. agonists.
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e. agonists.
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4-31. An antagonistic effect on neurotransmitter synthesis includes a. blocking a precursor. b. promoting a precursor. c. blocking NT release. d. promoting NT release. e. blocking the autoreceptor.
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a. blocking a precursor.
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4-34. A drug that binds with a postsynaptic receptor, but does not open ion channels, would be termed a(n) a. direct agonist. b. ligand. c. direct synergist. d. direct antagonist. e. indirect antagonist
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d. direct antagonist.
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4-35. A drug that binds at a postsynaptic site different from that of the neurotransmitter and facilitates the opening of ion channels would be termed a(n) a. indirect antagonist. b. ligand. c. direct synergist. d. indirect agonist. e. inducer.
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d. indirect agonist.
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4-36. PCP binds to an alternate binding site for the NMDA glutamate receptor, causing less neurotransmitter action. This binding action makes PCP a(n) a. indirect antagonist. b. ligand. c. direct synergist. d. direct antagonist. e. neurohormone.
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a. indirect antagonist.
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4-41. Inactivation of a transporter in the presynaptic membrane would be expected to a. increase the levels of the transmitter in the synapse. b. increase synthesis of the transmitter. c. increase reuptake of the transmitter. d. provide negative feedback on synthesis or release of transmitter. e. increase the transmitter synthesis.
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a. increase the levels of the transmitter in the synapse.
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4-44. Which of the following is an incorrect match between a neurotransmitter and its effects? a. glutamate; generally excitatory in the brain b. acetylcholine; activates the cortex and facilitates learning c. glycine; generally inhibitory in the brain d. glutamate; released by all sensory neurons e. acetylcholine; subject to reuptake by the axon terminals
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e. acetylcholine; subject to reuptake by the axon terminals
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4-45. Which pair of transmitters are the primary excitatory and inhibitory (respectively) transmitters in the brain? a. glutamate; acetylcholine b. GABA; glycine c. glycine; acetylcholine d. glutamate; GABA e. acetylcholine; dopamine
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d. glutamate; GABA
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4-47. Glutamate, GABA, and glycine are important because these are a. the major excitatory neurotransmitters in the CNS. b. known to be solely inhibitory in the brain. c. the predominant neuromodulators in the spinal cord. d. the most common neurotransmitters in the CNS. e. involved in Parkinson’s disease.
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d. the most common neurotransmitters in the CNS.
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4-52. Which of the following is true of GABA in the brain? a. GABA is involved in Parkinson’s disease. b. GABA has a general excitatory effect. c. An excess of GABA may result in epilepsy. d. Drugs that antagonize GABA function reduce anxiety. e. The inhibitory effects of GABA act to stabilize the electrical activity of the brain.
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e. The inhibitory effects of GABA act to stabilize the electrical activity of the brain.
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4-56. Someone with epilepsy might be prescribed a medicine to increase __________ action. a. glutamate b. GABA c. glycine d. serotonin e. dopamine
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b. GABA
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4-57. ________ is the primary neurotransmitter secreted by motor axons of the CNS. a. Dopamine b. Norepinephrine c. Acetylcholine d. Serotonin e. GABA
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c. Acetylcholine
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4-59. Match up the transmitter substance below with the appropriate behavioral role or action of that transmitter. a. acetylcholine; facilitation of perceptual learning b. dopamine; suppresses certain species-typical behaviors c. norepinephrine; facilitation of learning d. serotonin; increases vigilance e. GABA; generally activates voluntary movements
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a. acetylcholine; facilitation of perceptual learning
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4-63. Muscle contractions often need to happen quickly so they are controlled via _____________ receptors. a. ionotropic b. metabotropic c. serotonergic d. dopaminergic e. synthetic
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a. ionotropic
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4-69. A drug that blocks acetylcholinesterase in brain would be expected to a. permanently damage brain cholinergic neurons. b. decrease the amount of acetylcholine in the synapse. c. increase the synaptic levels of acetylcholine. d. alter the activity of the cholinergic autoreceptors. e. reduce the rate of reuptake of acetylcholine into glial cells.
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c. increase the synaptic levels of acetylcholine.
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4-73. Which pair below represents the receptor subtypes for acetylcholine? a. cholinergic; adrenergic b. muscarinic; adrenergic c. alpha-cholinergic; beta-cholinergic d. nicotinic; muscarinic e. beta-cholinergic; delta-cholinergic
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d. nicotinic; muscarinic
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4-74. Which pair of drugs below are antagonists for the muscarinic and nicotinic (respectively) receptors? a. atropine; curare b. hemicholium; atropine c. curare; atropine d. muscarine; nicotine e. acetylcholinesterase; choline acetyltransferase
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a. atropine; curare
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4-87. Dopamine belongs to the __________ class of monoamines. a. indolamine b. ethylamine c. catecholamine d. amino acid e. neuropeptide
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c. catecholamine
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4-93. Which of the pairs below are synonymous? a. epinephrine and adrenaline b. nicotine and glycine c. noradrenaline and GABA d. serotonin and drug abuse e. glutamate and glycine
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a. epinephrine and adrenaline
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4-98. Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin or that cause the release of serotonin are used therapeutically to treat a. anorexia nervosa. b. depression. c. mania. d. psychosis. e. bipolar disorder.
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b. depression.
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4-105. The term “opioid” refers to ________, while the term “opiates” refers to ________. a. postsynaptic receptors; endogenous chemicals b. exogenous drugs; endogenous chemicals c. presynaptic receptors; postsynaptic receptors d. analgesic chemicals released from glial cells; autoreceptors e. endogenous chemicals; exogenous drugs
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e. endogenous chemicals; exogenous drugs
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4-108. Activation of cannabinoid receptors by THC a. stimulates appetite. b. occurs when a person smokes marijuana. c. results in analgesia. d. reduces nausea and vomiting. e. produces nausea and vomiting.
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b. occurs when a person smokes marijuana.