chapter 4 inorganic chemistry

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bronsted acid
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proton donor
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bronsted base
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proton acceptor
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amphiprotic
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can act as both an acid and a base
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autoprolysis
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proton transfer from one water mmolecule to another
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autoprolysis constant
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1.00×10^-14 at 25 celcius
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strong acid pka value
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pka<1
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polyprotic acid
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can donate more than one proton
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what does it mean when proton gain enthalpy is largeand negative
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it means it is an exothermic proton attachment and the electron affinity is high which means it is strongly basic in the gas phase and if the proton gain enthalpy is only slightly negative it is only slifhtly basic in charachter
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proton affinity trend for p block periodic table
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decreases to the right and up so I would have low basicity and F would have high bisicity
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electron affinity
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nuetral atoms likelihood of gaining an electron
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What happens to the proton affinity trend when it is switched to a sysytme that uses a solvent
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it becomes known as the effective proton affinity(also known as the enthalpy that accompanies the process)
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salvation does what
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stabilizes species carrying a charge
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aqua acid
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acidic proton is on the water
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hydroxacid
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proton is on a neighboring proton group but not with another oxo group neighbor
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oxoacid
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hydroxyl has an acidic proton with a neighboring oxo group
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when does aqua acid strength increase
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when the radius decreases and the cation charge increases
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What is special about the aqua acid strength of the p and d block
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rows 2 and 3 are more acidic than the first row
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mononuclear acids
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somplest oxoacids that contains one atom of the parent element including H2CO3 and is formed by upper right on the periodic table along with other electronegative atoms
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acidic oxide
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oxide that on dissoloution in water will bind to water and realease a proton to the surrounding solvent
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basic oxide
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oxide which a proton is transfered when dissolved in water
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pulings rule
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mononuclear acid strenght increases with number of o, resonance. this is quantitativly measure by pka
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one oxo pka
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3
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two oxo groups pka
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-2
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amphoteric oxide
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reacts with both acids and base
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alkali metal ions act as what with water
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lewis acids that form hydrated ions
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boron trihalides act as what ?
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generally an acid that increases generally as bf3 <bcl3<bbr3
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group 14 elements are special befause
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they can exhibit hypervalence and act as an acid for example si can react to form 6 bonds with f
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group 15 formms
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superacids sb can form 6 bonds with f the difference between 14 and 15 is that elements in 15 like sb can have 5 bonds origionally
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group 16 sulfur dioxide lewis acid base properties
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S can accept an electron pair on the s atom as an acid or donate one of its electron pairs on the o or s
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Bromine and iodides lewis properties
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they are mild lewis acids and this is most likely because of their low energies
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complec formations
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simplest lewis acid base reaction in gas phase where A+:B -> A-B
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a displacemnt reaction is
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when an acid or base drivees out another acid or base out from a complex
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what is a metathesis reaction
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doubledisplacement
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hard acid
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forms stability in order i-<br-<cl-<f- and p<n<s<o
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soft acid
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forms stability where f-<cl-<br-<I- and o<s<n<p
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solvent system deffinition of an acid and base
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anything that increases cation concentrations are acids and anion concentrations are bases
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ionic liquids
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salts with low melting points with asymetric quaternary alkyl ammonium cations and complex anions and carboxolates of various chain lengths. They are polar, nonvolatile solvents that can provide very high concentrations of lewis acids or bases as catalysts for many reactions
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supercritical fluids
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have special properties as solvents and are finding increasing use in environmenttally benign industrial processes. it is state of matter where the liquid and vapor phases are indistinguishable. Low viscosity combined with high dissolving capability.
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superacid
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substance that is more efficient proton fonor than pure anyhydrous h2s04. typically they are viscous corrosive liquids and is 10^8 times more acidic formed by dissolving sbf5 in hso3f or anyhydrous hf
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surface acids
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solids with high surface area and lewis acid sites
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solid acids
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catalytic activity of zeolites arises from their acidic nature

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