Chapter 3

culture
the sum of the social categories and concepts we recognize in addition to our beliefs, behaviors, and practices (everything but nature)
ethnocentrism
the belief that ones own culture or group is superior to others and the tendency to view all other cultures from the perspective of their own
nonmaterial culture
values, beliefs, behaviors, and social norms
material culture
everything that is a part of our constructed, physical environment, including technology
ideology
a system of concepts and relationships, an understanding of cause and effect
cultural relativism
taking into account the differences across cultures without passing judgement or assigning value
cultural scripts
modes of behavior and understanding that are not universal or natural
subculture
the distinct cultural values and behavioral patterns of a particular group in society; a group united by a sets of concepts, values, symbols, and shared meaning specific to the members of that group distinctive enough to distinguish it from others within the same culture or society
values
moral beliefs
norms
how values tell us to behave
socialization
our internalization of societies values, beliefs and norms
-process by which you learn how to become a functioning member of society
reflection theory
idea that culture is a projection of social structures and relationships into the public sphere, a screen onto which the film of the underlying reality or social structures of our society is projected
media
any formats or vehicles that carry, present, or communicate information
hegemony
a condition by which a dominant group uses its power to elicit the voluntary “consent” of the masses
consumerism
the steady acquisition of material possessions, often with the belief that happiness and fulfillment can thus be achieved
culture jamming
the act of turning media against themselves
self
the individual identity of a person as perceived by that same person
I
ones self sense of agency, action, or power
me
the self as perceived as an object by the “i”; the self as one imagines others perceive one
other
someone or something outside of oneself
generalized other
an internalized sense of the total expectations of others in a variety of settings- regardless of whether we’ve encountered those people or places before
resocialization
the process by which ones sense of social values, beliefs, and norms are reengineered, often deliberately through an intense social process that may take place in a total institution
total institution
an institution that controls all the basics of day-to-day life
status
recognizable position that an individual occupies
role
the duties and behaviors expected of someone who holds a particular status
role strain
the incompatibility among roles corresponding to a single status
role conflict
the tension caused by competing demands between two or more roles pertaining to different statuses
status set
all the statuses one holds simultaneously
ascribed status
a status into which one is born; involuntary status
achieved status
a status into which one enters; voluntary status
master status
one status within a set that stands out or overrides all others
gender roles
sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one’s status as male or female
symbolic interactionism
a micro-level theory in which shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivations behind people’s actions
dramaturgical theory
the view of social life as essentially a theatrical performance, in which we are all actors on metaphorical stages, with roles, scripts, costumes, and sets
face
the esteem in which an individual is held by others
ethnomethodology
literally “the methods of people”. this approach to studying human interaction focuses on the ways in which we makes sense of our world, convert this understanding to others, and produce a shared social order
Which of the following represents an ascribed status?
American of Japanese descent
The act of turning media against itself, such as the actions of Rockin’ Rollen and Adbusters, is called:
culture jamming
What is Jean Kilbourne’s critique of an advertisement that shows a pair of women’s legs with brand new, expensive shoes on them popping out of a trash can?
It promotes, even implicitly, violence against women.
Expectations that define appropriate or inappropriate behavior for the occupants of a particular status are called:
roles
Bill Gates and Oprah Winfrey have a lot of “things.” Because of this, the rest of us look at them with envy and wish we could have the happiness that we assume they have. This is an example of:
consumerism
If we place nature and nurture at opposite ends on a continuum, most sociologists would fall toward the nurture end of the continuum. Which statement best explains this tendency?
Sociologists focus on, and as a result give primary weight, to the social environment in explaining how people think, feel, and behave
According to Charles Horton Cooley, we develop a self-concept by:
interpreting how others think about us.
All of the statuses that an individual occupies at any given time constitute his or her:
status set
A recognizable social position that an individual occupies, such as “student” or “professor,” is known as a:
a status
According to ____________, the language we speak directly influences and reflects the way we think about and see the world.
the Sapir-Whor hypothesis
Theories of socialization focus, in part, on how the “self” develops. According to your textbook, the “self” is:
the individual identity of a person as perceived by that same person.
Ethnomethodology is an approach to studying human interaction that focuses on:
how we make sense of our world and convey this understanding to others in our effort to create mutually shared realities.
While they are difficult to define, ____________ are smaller subgroups within a larger dominant society united by sets of concepts, values, symbols, and shared meanings specific to the members of that group.
subcultures
Saying “hello” when answering the telephone signals the start of an encounter in the first bracket and is known to dramaturgists as:
the opening
Karl Marx asserted that culture:
is a reflection of the means of production of a particular time
In 1941, Time magazine ran an article on how to distinguish between Chinese and Japanese people. These descriptions reflected:
the state of mind of Americans at the time
The three basic tenets of symbolic interactionism theory include all of the following EXCEPT:
Human beings inherit mutual understandings of symbols across cultures, times, and social changes.
Part of what we learn in elementary school is to obey authority, follow the rules, and learn the importance of being on time. Because these values are important to the functioning of the capitalist system, Gramsci would call this:
hegemony
Cooley’s theory of socialization states that the self develops from our interactions with others and their reactions to us. This theory is known as:
looking-glass self theory
In the United States, six major companies, including Disney and Time Warner, own what percentage of the media?
90%
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