Chapter 3 Egyptian Art – Art History

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abstract
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theoretical; not concrete; nonrepresentational
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pictographs
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pictures that stand for words or ideas; picture writing
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hieratic scale
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size being assoiciated with importance
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papyrus
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paper made from the papyrus plant by cutting it in strips and pressing it flat
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register
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one of a series of superimposed bands or friezes in a pictorial narrative, or the particular levels on which motifs are placed
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canon of proportion
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A rule for proportions of the human body
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groundline
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in paintings and reliefs, a painted or carved baseline on which figures appear to stand
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ka
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Egyptian eternal life force
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mastaba
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an ancient Egyptian mudbrick tomb with a rectangular base and sloping sides and flat roof
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veneer
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an ornamental coating to a building
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serdab
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A small concealed chamber in Egyptian mastaba for the statue of the deceased for the Ka to find
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sarcophagus
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an ancient marble or stone coffin, often decorated with artwork and inscriptions
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necropolis
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Literally this means \”city of the dead\”. In Egypt it describes the Valley of the Kings and Queens, areas devoted to burial.
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ziggurats
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temples built by Sumerians to honor the gods and goddesses they worshipped
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engaged column
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A half-round column attached to a wall.
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attached column
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fluting
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vertical channeling, roughly semicircular in cross-section, and used principally on columns and pilasters
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capitals
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the uppermost member of a column which serves as a transition from the shaft to the lintel
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portico
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a porch or entrance to a building consisting of a covered and often columned area
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rock-cut tomb
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Method of excavating tombs that begun during the Middle Kingdom. The burials in the Valley of the Kings are perhaps the best known Rock-cut tombs.
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stele
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an ancient upright stone slab bearing markings
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hieroglyphs
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pictures, characters, or symbols standing for words, ideas, or sounds; ancient Egyptians used instead of an alphabet like ours
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faience
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glazed earthenware decorated with opaque colors, egyptian
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cartouche
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an oval or oblong figure (as on ancient Egyptian monuments) enclosing a sovereign’s name.
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hypostyle hall
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a large interior room characterized by many closely spaced columns that support its roof.
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pylons
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monumental gateways to an Egyptian temple by two flat, sloping walls between which is a smaller entrance
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clerestory
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part of an interior wall rising above the adjacent roof with windows admitting light
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peristyle court
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a many-columned court (colonnade) around an open courtyard
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obelisk
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a stone pillar having a rectangular cross section tapering towards a pyramidal top (Egyptian)
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axial plan
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a plan in which the parts of a building are organized longtitudinally along a given axis
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colonnade
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a structure composed of a series of arches supported by columns
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sunken relief
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the highest projecting parts of the image are no higher than the surface itself, in a relief sculpture
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encaustic
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an ancient method of painting that uses colored waxes burned into a wooden surface
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Djoser
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The first Egyptian pyramid, the Stepped Pyramid at Saqqara, was built for king:
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Imhotep
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Name of the architect who designed the Step Pyramid
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Khafre
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Pharaoh who built the Giza Sphinx, and second largest pyramid
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Menkaure
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after Khufu; built the third and smallest pyramid at Giza
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Senusret III
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Hapshepsut
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Female Egyptian ruler for 30 years. Son was too young to rule.
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Rames II
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ruled from 1279 B.C. to 1213 B.C., Egyptian armies regained lands in western Asia and rebuilt the empire; he is also famous for his temple built at Abu Simbel, which is carved out of a solid rock cliff
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Nefertiti
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queen of Egypt and wife of Akhenaton (14th century BC)
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Akhenaten
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Egyptian pharaoh (r. 1353-1335 B.C.E.). He built a new capital at Amarna, fostered a new style of naturalistic art, and created a religious revolution by imposing worship of the sun-disk. (p.66)
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Tutankhamun
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(King Tut) Egyptian pharaoh who ruled from age 7 to 17; his tomb was discovered (nearly untouched) in 1922
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Howard Carter
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Egyptologist who in 1922 discovered and excavated the tomb of Tutankhamen

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