Chapter 3 – History

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Popular sovereignty
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All political power resides in the people
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Limited government
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Holds that no government is all-powerful
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Constitutionalism
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Government must be conducted according to constitutional principles
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Rule of law
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Holds that government and its officers, in all that they do, are always subject to the law
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Separation of powers
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These basic powers are distributed amoung three distinct and independent branch of gov.
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Checks and balances
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Each branch is subject to a number of constitional checks or ristraints
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Veto
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Rejec
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Judical review
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The power of a court to determine the constitutionality of gov. Action
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Unconstitutional
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To declare illegal null and void of the force and effect and governmental action found to violate some provision in the constituion
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Federalism
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The division of power amoung a cental goverment and several regional goverments
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Amendment
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For changes in its written words
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Ratification
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Two methods of propsal
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Formal amendment
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Changes or additions that become part of the written language of the constition itself
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Bill of rights
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The first ten amendments
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Executive agreement
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A pact made by the president dirctly with the head of a forgin states
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Treaty
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A formal agreement between two or more soveregin states
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Electoral college
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The body that makes the formal selection of the nations president
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Cabinet
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Advisory body of the president
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Senatorial courtesy
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That the senate will not approve a presidental appointment oppsed by a majority party
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Republicanism
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Choice representatives to represent them
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What is the function of the constitution?
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The laying out of the basic rules of American politics
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What are the important elements of the constitution
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Preamble, legislative, judicial, relations among the states with national gov., amending the constitution, supreme law of land, ratifying the constitution, amendments
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Popular sovereignty example
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preamble
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Limited government example
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First amendment
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What is limited government often called
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Constitutionalism
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How is limited government described
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The rule of law
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explain the significance of the separation of powers example
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Articles 1,2,3
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What were the framers seeking to achieve with the principle of separation of powers
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Intended to create a stronger central government for the U.S.
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Checks and balances example
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Legit excuse passes bill and pres. Can veto
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What is the purpose of checks and balances
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To ensure that governmental power wouldn’t be use to an abusive manner
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What is the significance of checks and balances
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When is the working relationship between executive and legislative most productive
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What is the power of judicial review
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Example: malubery vs Madison
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Landmark case established the power of judicial review
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Marburg vs Madison-1803
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Example of the principle of federalism
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Tenth amendment
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What are the basic forms of constitutional change?
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Formal and informal
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Where is the proposal and ratification process located in the constitution?
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Article 5
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How does the formal amendment process reflect federalism?
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It is proposed at the nation level and ratified at the state level
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How does the formal amendment process reflect popular sovereignty?
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Expression of the people
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How many amendments have been added to the constitution?
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27
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When was the Bill of rights added to the constitution?
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1791 and 3 years after constitution approved
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Why was the bill of rights considered to be critical to the passage of the constitution?
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Without it the constitution would never have been approved
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List the 5 basic ways of the constitution can be changed other than formal amendment
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Neither the constitution and law provides for notation of candidates for the presidency, national convention, electoral collage, congress conducts business and parties
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How have various Presidents used their power to influence the growth of the constitution
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Executive agreement
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How have the courts contributed to the growth of the constitution
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They do it through judicial review which is established through Madison vs Marbury
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How did the Framers feel about political parties
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They did not like them
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How does the constitution address the process of nominating the President
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It does not say anything about it in the constitution
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How have customs impacted the expansion of the constitution
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1) cabinet was accustom 2) 25th amendment presidential 3) senator courtesy 4) 22nd term limit for the presidential terms

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