Chapter 25 APUSH Vocab

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Fireside chats
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informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people
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“bank holiday”
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closed all banks until gov. examiners could investigate their financial condition; only sound/solvent banks were allowed to reopen
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Emergency Banking Act
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A government legislation passed during the depression that dealt with the bank problem. The act allowed a plan which would close down insolvent banks and reorganize and reopen those banks strong enough to survive.
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Glass-Steagall Act
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(Banking Act of 1933) – Established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and included banking reforms, some designed to control speculation. Repealed in 1999, opening the door to scandals involving banks and stock investment companies.
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FDIC
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Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A federal guarantee of savings bank deposits initially of up to $2500, raised to $5000 in 1934, and frequently thereafter; continues today with a limit of $100,000
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CCC
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Civilian Conservation Corps. It was Relief that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc.
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21st amendment
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Amendment which ended the Prohibition of alcohol in the US, repealing the 18th amendment
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AAA
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Agricultural Adjustment Administration: attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsidies; ruled unconstitutional in 1936; disbanded after World War II
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NIRA
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1933 National Industrial Recovery Act. Recovery. Created NRA to enforce codes of fair competition, minimum wages, and to permit collective bargaining of workers.
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NRA
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Attempted to combat the Depression through national economic planning by establishing and administering a system of industrial codes to control production, prices, labor relations, and trade practices among leading business interests; ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1935
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Federal Emergency Relief Administration
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The Act was the first direct-relief operation under the New Deal, and was headed by Harry L. Hopkins, a New York social worker who was one of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s most influential advisers *, law provided money for food and other necessities for the unemployed *Affected the people in trying to aid people feeling the effects of the depression, still in effect today
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Relief, Recovery, Reform
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These were the categories into which the New Deal was split. Relief defined by the acts implemented in the area of aid to the unemployment. Recovery put forth measures that would help aid in the speedy recovery of areas hit hardest by the depression. Reform tried to recreate areas that seemed faulty
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Securities and Exchange Commission
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monitors the stock market and enforces laws regulating the sale of stocks and bonds
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Social Security Act of 1935
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Created both the Social Security Program and a national assistance program for poor children, usually called AFDC.
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Father Charles Coughlin
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A Catholic priest from Michigan who was critical of FDR on his radio show. His radio show morphed into being severly against Jews during WWII and he was eventually kicked off the air, however before his fascist (?) rants, he was wildly popular among those who opposed FDR’s New Deal.
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Huey “the Kingfish” Long
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Critic of The New Deal who was the governor of Louisiana.
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Share our wealth
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radical relief program proposed by Senator Huey Long in the 1930s to empower the government to seize wealth from the rich through taxes and provide a guaranteed minimum income and home to every American family
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Second New Deal
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(1935) a new set of programs in the spring of 1935 including additional banking reforms, new tax laws, new relief programs
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Wagner Act/NLRB
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National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act). Protects the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions. NLR Board is independent agency of US govn’t charged w/ conducting elections for labor union representation and remedying unfair labor practices
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WPA
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Work Progress Administration: Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during WWII
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Court packing plan
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Because the Supreme Court was striking down New Deal legislation, Roosevelt decided to curb the power of the Court by proposing a bill to allow the president to name a new federal judge for each who did not retire by age 70 and 1/2. At the time, 6 justices were over the age limit. Would have increased the number of justices from 9 to 15, giving FDR a majority of his own appointees on the court. The court-packing bill was not passed by Congress.
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Fair Labor Standards Act
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1938 act which provided for a minimum wage and restricted shipments of goods produced with child labor
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Roosevelt Recession
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1937 economic downturn caused by sound fiscal policy due to cut spending and higher taxes
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John Maynard Keynes
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English economist who advocated the use of government monetary and fiscal policy to maintain full employment without inflation (1883-1946)
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Keynesian Economics
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Theory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes, stating that government spending should increase during business slumps and be curbed during booms.
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CIO
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a federation of North American industrial unions that merged with the American Federation of Labor in 1955
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John L. Lewis
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long-time labor leader who organized and led the first important unskilled workers labor union, called in to represent union during sit-down strike
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Sit down strikes
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Type of strike in which striking workers refuse to leave the factories so that owners cannot replace them
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Frances Perkins
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(born Fanny Coralie Perkins, lived April 10, 1882 – May 14, 1965) was the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition
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New Deal coalition
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coalition forged by the Democrats who dominated American politics from the 1930’s to the 1960’s. its basic elements were the urban working class, ethnic groups, Catholics and Jews, the poor, Southerners, African Americans, and intellectuals.
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Dorothea League
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FSA photographer

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