Chapter 24 Practice Quiz

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A, the printing press
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Martin Luther’s criticism of the Roman Catholic Church was greatly aided by A. the printing press. B. the enthusiastic support of clergy in the Catholic Church. C. local newspapers. D. active guilds and artisans. E. all of the above.
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E, all of the above
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Martin Luther’s work had an enthusiastic popular support because A. he attacked the sale of indulgences that the poor could not afford. B. many Christians shared his concern about the corruption of the Church. C. many German princes saw this as a way to break away from the Church. D. he supported the translation of the Bible from Latin into the vernacular languages. E. all of the above.
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D, Protestantism provided monarchs and opportunity to break away from the political domination of Rome
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What political motivations encouraged the spread of Protestantism? A. Protestantism provided people an opportunity to overthrow monarchies. B. Protestantism encouraged people to claim their individual rights. C. Protestantism encouraged militarism in European nations. D. Protestantism provided monarchs an opportunity to break away from the political domination of Rome. E. all of the above.
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D, summoned a council to clarify doctrine and strengthen their spiritual commitment
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In response to the challenges raised by the Protestant Reformation, the Catholic Church A. launched a military campaign against the German states. B. abandoned its monasteries in Germany. C. abandoned the practice of selling indulgences. D. summoned a council to clarify doctrine and strengthen their spiritual commitment. E. all of the above.
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B, to be disciplined, educated representatives of the Church throughout the world
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What was the principle work of the Society of Jesus? A. to expose witches and heretics. B. to be disciplined, educated representatives of the Church throughout the world. C. to be soldiers for Jesus in the battle against the Protestants. D. to direct the Court of the Inquisition on behalf of the pope. E. to raise money for the Church by selling indulgences.
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A, the conflicts of the Reformation contributed to a climate of suspicion and violence
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One reason for the hysterical witch-hunts of the 16th century was that A. the conflicts of the Reformation contributed to a climate of suspicion and violence. B. unusual natural phenomena suggested supernatural causes. C. desperate people turned to magic to try and improve their lives. D. new texts claimed scientific evidence of witchcraft. E. all of the above.
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D, The Holy Roman Emperor tried to force his Bohemian subjects to return to Catholicism
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The Thirty Years’ War began when A. The pope tried to force his subjects to return to the Catholic Church. B. Elizabeth I attempted to force Protestantism on Spain. C. Charles V attempted to imprison Martin Luther. D. The Holy Roman Emperor tried to force his Bohemian subjects to return to Catholicism. E. Louis XIV invaded the Low Countries.
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C, centralizing monarchs, because they gained more independent authority
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Who benefited most from the religious controversy generated by the Reformation? A. the people, because they had religious freedom. B. the peasants, because they were able to leave the estates and move in to the cities. C. centralizing monarchs, because they gained more independent authority. D. the Catholic Church, because it gained more committed supporters. E. the Islamic empires, because Europe was divided and weakened.
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B, England
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Which of the following was NOT part of Charles V’s holdings? A. Austria. B. England. C. the Netherlands. D. Hungary. E. Spain.
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E, he alienated the pope for failing to crush Luther
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Charles V was unable to forge a united empire for all of the following reasons EXCEPT A. The Lutheran challenge sapped much of his attention. B. French kings undermined his efforts and allied themselves with his enemies. C. There was no central administration to the empire; each state was governed separately. D. His empire was geographically fragmented. E. He alienated the pope for failing to crush Luther.
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E, a commitment to individual libert
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The new monarchs were characterized by all of the following EXCEPT A. large centrally administered bureaucracies. B. standing professional armies. C. increased state revenues through taxes. D. enhanced power at the expense of the nobles. E. a commitment to individual liberty.
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C, discouraging the Spanish nobles from adopting Protestantism
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The Spanish Inquisition relied on religious justifications to advance what political ends? A. increasing the revenues for the Spanish crown. B. raising a vast army for Spain. C. discouraging the Spanish nobles from adopting Protestantism. D. crushing a suspected Muslim rebellion. E. none of the above.
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E, the election of the monarch by the merchant class
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17th-century constitutional monarchies are characterized by all of the following EXCEPT A. representational institutions such as Parliament. B. a system of shared authority. C. state support for maritime trade and international commerce. D. recognition of individual rights. E. the election of the monarch by the merchant class.
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B, the king derives his authority from God alone and is not accountable to his subjects
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According to the divine-right theory of government, A. power and authority are based on a contract between the sovereign and his citizens. B. the king derives his authority from God alone and is not accountable to his subjects. C. the king has a divine mandate to serve his people well; if he violates that trust then he can be overthrown. D. the people and the state exist only to enrich the sovereign. E. God is the real sovereign and the Church represents His authority in earthly matters.
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C, requiring the nobility to live at Versailles where he could distract them and keep an eye on them
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Louis XIV managed to control the nobles of France and their activities by A. crushing the most powerful nobles in a civil war early in his reign. B. heavily taxing the nobles’ estates so they could no longer fund private armies. C. requiring the nobility to live at Versailles where he could distract them and keep an eye on them. D. appointing hundreds of new nobles from the merchant class, who were loyal to him. E. all of the above.
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E, all of the above
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The Treaty of Westphalia, which ended of the Thirty Years’ War, ensured that A. Germany remained fragmented. B. the nations of Europe would no longer go to war over religion. C. each nation was permitted to direct its own internal affairs. D. the balance of power was the new principle of European diplomacy. E. all of the above.
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A, improved nutrition with new American food crops
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The population of Europe grew dramatically in the 17th century because of A. improved nutrition with new American food crops. B. new agricultural technology, which increased output. C. the development of the 1st immunizations for smallpox and plague. D. improved public health and sanitation. E. all of the above.
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B, craft guilds
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New institutions that supported early capitalism included all of the following EXCEPT A. banks and lending institutions. B. craft guilds. C. stock exchanges. D. joint-stock companies. E. insurance companies.
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E, the guild members who specialized in specific elements of cloth production such as weaving or dying
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The putting-out system was profitable for all of the following groups EXCEPT whom? A. the entrepreneurs who moved cloth production into the countryside. B. the rural workers who did the spinning and weaving. C. the consumers who bought the finished cloth. D. the merchant and traders who shipped woolen cloth outside the country. E. the guild members who specialized in specific elements of cloth production such as weaving or dying.
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E, Ptolemy and the moons of Jupiter
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Which individual is incorrectly paired with a scientific discovery? A. Newton and the principle of gravity. B. Kepler and the planetary orbits. C. Galileo and the principle of inertia. D. Copernicus and the sun-centered model of the universe. E. Ptolemy and the moons of Jupiter.
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A, the telescope
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Galileo’s discoveries would NOT have been possible without A. the telescope. B. the printing press. C. the astrolabe. D. the development of calculus. E. all of the above.
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B, the stars and planets were part of a unified system, governed by the same natural laws
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Isaac Newton’s work seemed to suggest that A. the solar system was only one of many thousand such systems in an infinite universe. B. the stars and planets were part of a unified system, governed by the same natural laws. C. God was indifferent to the prayers and concerns of humanity. D. it was possible to mathematically prove the existence of God. E. time and space were relative, not absolute constructs.
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Henry VIII
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In order to divorce his queen, he severed ties between England and the Catholic Church.
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Louis XIV
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The Sun King of France was the model of an absolute monarch.
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Galileo Galilei
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With a telescope, he demonstrated that the moon and the planets were made of matter and confirmed that the planets revolved around the sun.
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Nicolaus Copernicus
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This Polish mathematician theorized that, if the sun were placed at the center of the heavens, the orbits of the earth and the planets appeared more orderly.
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Charles V
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Ruler of a vast and scattered continental kingdom, he was never able to unify his holdings into a single kingdom.
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Adam Smith
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This Scottish economist argued that self-interested capitalism was ultimately the best for society as a whole.
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Isaac Newton
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An English mathematician, his laws concerning gravitation and universal motion provided the rational explanation for the solar system.
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John Calvin
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This Protestant leader, with his strict doctrines of reformed Christianity, strongly influenced the Reformation in Switzerland, France, the Netherlands, and Scotland.
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Voltaire
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French satirist and social critic, his attacks on the state and the Catholic Church typified the spirit of the Enlightenment.
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Martin Luther
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This German monk attacked the Catholic sale of indulgences and launched the Reformation.

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