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Chapter 22 World History

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Scientific revolution
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a major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
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Heliocentric theory
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the idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.
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scientific method
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a logical procedure for gathering information about the natural world, in which experimentation and observation are used to test hypotheses.
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enlightenment
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an 18th century European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society
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social contract
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people give up some rights to have a strong ruler
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natural rights
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the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
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philosophe
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one of a group of social critics in France during the Enlightenment.
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separation of powers
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The division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government.
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Nicolaus Copernicus
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Came up with the heliocentric theory. Did not publish his work because it clashed with the church.
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Johannes Kepler
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Showed that planets orbit the sun in elliptical orbits, not circular ones. Supported Copernicus
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Galileo Galilei
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This scientist proved Copernicus’ theory that the sun was the center of the solar system and developed the modern experimental method. Put in prison for much of his life.
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Francis Bacon
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Said scientists should make their conclusions based on information and experiments. Developed scientific methods
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Rene Descartes
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Came up with analytical geometry. Developed logic
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Isaac Newton
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Came up with the concept of gravity and the theory of motion
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John Locke
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Came up with the idea of a \”social contract\”; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property
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Voltaire
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used satire in his literature to criticize French society
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Montesquieu
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French philosophe who believed in separation of powers
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Jean Jacques Rousseau
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Said valid government only came from consent of the governed. Believed all people were equal. Inspired French Revolution.
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Mary Wollstonecraft
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Argued for women’s rights
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The Enlightenment was the Age of __________
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Reason
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Hobbes believed that humans were __________ and __________.
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selfish and wicked
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Hobbes believed in the Social _________
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Contract
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What type of government did Hobbes believe was best?
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Absolute Monarchy because it was strongest
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What was the name of Hobbes book?
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Leviathan
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John Locke believed people could govern ___________
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themselves
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Locke believed every man was born with ___________
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natural rights
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Locke’s 3 natural rights
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life, liberty, and property
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what did Locke believe was the purpose of government?
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to protect men’s natural rights
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French philosophes believed in 5 concepts:
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Reason, Nature, Happiness, Progress, Liberty
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Who was the most influential French philosophe?
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Voltaire
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What happened to Voltaire?
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He was exiled from France
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Montesquieu believed in what branches of government?
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executive, legislative and judicial
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Beccaria promoted the idea of
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Criminal justice
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Beccaria believed that a punishment should be based on what?
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the seriousness of the crime
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Enlightenment believed that human reason could solve what?
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social problems
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During the Enlightenment, people began to question religion and _____
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God
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Paris salons
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held in women’s homes to discuss the enlightenment
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People shared ideas in three ways:
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books, magazine articles, personal letters
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Neoclassical borrowed ideas from
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Greece and Rome
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What class of people liked neoclassical stuff?
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Middle class
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What is a novel
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a work of prose fiction
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Frederick the Great was king of ________
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Prussia
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What freedoms did Frederick the Great grant?
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religious freedom, got rid of censorship, and improved education
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Joseph of Austria’s reforms
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Freedom of press and freedom of religion. Abolished serfdom and said everyone had to be paid for their work.
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Huguenots were French ______
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protestants
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What dynasty did Henry begin in France?
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Bourbon
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How old was Louis XIV when he took power?
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23
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What was another name for Louis XIV?
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The Sun King
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Who John Baptiste Colbert?
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Minister of Finance
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Two ways Colbert made France more self-sufficient
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Expanded manufacturing and encouraged colonies
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Who was Louis XIV’s minister when he first became king?
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Cardinal Mazarin
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What was Cardinal Mazarin’s greatest success?
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Ended the 30 years war
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Two reasons the people hated Mazarin?
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He increased taxes and strengthened the central government.
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What happened at the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre?
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the French people started killing the Huguenots.
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Henry of Navarre converted to __________
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Catholicism
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Henry of Navarre passed the Edict of Nantes which granted Huguenots ____________
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religious freedom