Chapter 21: The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses

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A “foreign” molecule which can invoke the immune response is called a(n) – hapten. – antigen. – antibody. – colony-stimulating factor. – immunoglobulin.
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– antigen.
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Active artificially acquired immunity is a result of – contact with a pathogen. – vaccination. – antibodies passed on from mother to fetus through the placenta. – injection of an immune serum. – antibodies passed on from mother to baby through breast milk.
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– vaccination.
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Antibodies are produced in cells called – natural killer cells. – beta cells. – plasma cells. – helper T-cells. – memory cells.
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– plasma cells.
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Complement proteins work by – creating an impermeable barrier. – phagocytosis of target cells. – forming pores in the membranes of target cells. – producing antibodies. – neutralization of antigens.
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– forming pores in the membranes of target cells.
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Cytotoxic T cells kill target cells – by releasing oxidizing agents. – by phagocytosis. – through injection of tumor necrosis factor. – by secreting antibodies. – through insertion of perforins into the target’s membrane.
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– through insertion of perforins into the target’s membrane.
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Lymphocytes that develop immunocompetence in the thymus are – T lymphocytes. – B lymphocytes. – NK cells.
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– T lymphocytes.
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Saliva and lacrimal fluids contain this enzyme that destroys bacteria. – Pepsin – Amylase – Salivase – Trypsin – Lysozyme
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– Lysozyme
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The immune cell that allows for subsequent recognition of an antigen resulting in a secondary response is called a(n) – basophil. – antigen-presenting cell. – helper T-cell. – plasma cell. – memory cell.
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– memory cell.
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The primary mechanism of antibody action is – phagocytosis. – agglutination. – neutralization. – complement activation. – precipitation.
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– complement activation.
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These molecules are secreted by leukocytes and macrophages and result in a fever. – Pyrogens – Heparin – Antibodies – Histamine – Keratin
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– Pyrogens
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This type of antibody binds to mast cells and basophils, thus invoking inflammation. – IgA – IgG – IgE – IgM – IgD
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– IgE
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This type of disease results from the inability of the immune system to distinguish self from non-self antigens. – SCID – Allergy – Anaphylaxis – Autoimmune disease – Immunodeficiency
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– Autoimmune disease
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When a localized area exhibits increased capillary filtration, hyperemia, and swelling, this is an indication that – an immune response is underway. – antigens are present. – fever is developing. – inflammation is occurring. – antibodies are phagocytizing target cells.
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– inflammation is occurring.
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Which cell does NOT have a direct role in phagocytosis? – Basophil – Eosinophil – Macrophage – Neutrophil – Kupffer cell
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– Basophil
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Which cells phagocytize antigen-bearing cells and bind them to their MHCs? – NK cells – Antigen presenting cells – All immune cells – Helper T-cells – Plasma cells
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– Antigen presenting cells
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Which cells stimulate both arms of the immune response? – Basophils – Killer T-cells – Plasma cells – Helper T-cells – Complement cells
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– Helper T-cells
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Which nonspecific defense cells specialize in attacking cancer cells and virus-infected cells? – Natural killer cells – Basophils – Helper T-lymphocytes – Plasma cells – Macrophages
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– Natural killer cells
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Which of the following is a nonspecific barrier defense? – Complements – Natural killer cells – Mucous membranes – Macrophages – Antibodies
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– Mucous membranes
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Which statement below is characteristic of a secondary humoral response? – It triggers fever. – It only occurs in the spleen. – It results in less antibody secretion. – It results in less memory cell circulation. – It occurs much more rapidly than a primary response.
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– It occurs much more rapidly than a primary response.
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Which type of molecule is produced by viral-infected cells to communicate to non-infected cells of the presence of a virus? – Complement – Interferon – Interleukin – Pyrogen – Antigen
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– Interferon
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Which of the following is NOT a surface barrier to pathogen influx? – Complement cascade – Saliva and tears – Skin secretions – Mucous membranes
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– Complement cascade
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Which cells of the innate immune response are responsible for detecting and destroying parasites? – Natural killer cells – Mast cells – Eosinophils – Neutrophils
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– Eosinophils
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Which of the following is NOT one of the cardinal signs of inflammation? – Pain – Redness – Heat – Opsonization – Swelling
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– Opsonization
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The process that begins when a helper T-cell binds to an MHC class II protein on a displaying cell is known as – T-cell proliferation. – self antigen recognition. – costimulation. – antigen proliferation.
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– costimulation.
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All of the following are examples of autoimmune disorders EXCEPT – Grave’s disease. – systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) – Myasthenia gravis – sickle cell anemia. – rheumatoid arthritis.
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– sickle cell anemia.
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All of the following are examples of characteristics of adaptive defenses EXCEPT – they have memory. – they are systemic. – They are usually initiated in a lymph node. – we are born with them. – they are specific.
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– we are born with them.
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Which of the following is a primary lymphoid organ? – Spleen – Thymus – Peyer’s patch – Lymph node – Tonsil
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– Thymus
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Which of the following is the hallmark of the humoral immune response? – Antigen presentation – Phagocytosis – Binding of antibody to the antigen. – Cell lysis by T cells – Interferon production
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– Binding of antibody to the antigen.
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Which of the following is not an innate defense mechanism of the body? – fever – B lymphocytes – skin – inflammation
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– B lymphocytes
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Which of the following does not originate from a monocyte? – microglia – Kupffer cells – natural killer cells – free macrophages
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– natural killer cells
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The ability of a phagocyte to adhere to a particular particle depends on its ability to – coat the particle with protein. – recognize the carbohydrate signature of the particle. – produce a respiratory rush. – coat the particle with antibodies.
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– recognize the carbohydrate signature of the particle.
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Which of the following statements is false about natural killer cells? – They attach infected or cancerous cells that lack self-surface receptors. – They are large granular lymphocytes. – They are not specific for each antigen. – They destroy cells by phagocytosis.
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– They destroy cells by phagocytosis.
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Which of the following inflammatory chemicals is derived from arachidonic acid? – perforin – bradykinin – prostaglandin – histamine
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– prostaglandin
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Which of the following steps is the first step in an inflammatory response? – release of leukocytosis inducing factor – adhesion of the neutrophils cell adhesion molecules to antigen – positive chemotaxis – diapedesis
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– release of leukocytosis inducing factor
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In the respiratory burst, _____________ are released, which have potent cell-killing ability. – neutrophils – platelet derived growth factors – free radicals – histamines
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– free radicals
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Leukotrienes cause – dilation of the small blood vessels in an injured area. – neutrophils to migrate to an area of inflammation. – the release of digestive enzymes outside the cell. – apoptosis of cells.
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– dilation of the small blood vessels in an injured area.
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Toll-like receptors are found on – lymphocytes. – mast cells. – macrophages. – neutrophils.
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– macrophages.
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Which of the following statements about infectious granulomas is false? – The tuberculosis bacillus can cause them. – They contain a central region of infected macrophages. – They provide life-long protection to the host against the causative pathogen. – They appear as tumor-like growths.
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– They provide life-long protection to the host against the causative pathogen.
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Interferons can be used to treat all of the following except – cancer. – muscular dystrophy. – Hepatitis C. – viral infections.
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– muscular dystrophy.
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All of the following are functions of interferon except that – it mobilizes natural killer cells. – it interferes with viral replication in affected cells. – it only occurs naturally. – it is not viral specific.
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– it only occurs naturally.
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Which of the following processes is most similar to complement fixation? – chemotaxis – diapedesis – antibody formation – blood clotting
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– blood clotting
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The classical and alternate pathway for complement fixation converge at – production of C-reactive protein. – lysis of the foreign cell. – insertion of the membrane attack complex. – the release of factor B, D, and P.
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– insertion of the membrane attack complex.
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Which of the following minerals needed for bacterial reproduction does both the liver and spleen sequester during a fever? – zinc – phosphorous – magnesium – copper
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– zinc
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Which of the following does not apply to the specific defensive system? – It has memory. – It is immediate. – It is specific. – It is systemic.
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– It is immediate.
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Antigen is a contraction of – antigen etc. – antigenic determinants. – anti-genetic. – antibody genes.
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– antigenic determinants.
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Which hypersensitivity is caused by T-lymphocytes? – acute – subacute – chronic – delayed
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– delayed
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In the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restrictive process – T-lymphocytes with self-antigens go through negative selection. – T-lymphocytes with self-antigens only go through positive selection. – T-lymphocytes with self-antigens go through negative and positive selection. – immature T-lymphocytes go through apoptosis.
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– T-lymphocytes with self-antigens go through negative selection.
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“Somatic recombination” refers to – the selection of antigens the body will respond to. – the somatic response to recombinant DNA. – the shuffling of genetic fragments within each lymphocyte as it becomes immune competent. – the rearrangement of cells in order to produce an immune response.
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– the shuffling of genetic fragments within each lymphocyte as it becomes immune competent.
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All of the following are names of antigen-presenting cells except – macrophages. – B-lymphocytes. – T-lymphocytes. – Langerhan’s cells.
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– T-lymphocytes.
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Gene guns are used to shoot – antigens with genes. – genes that prevent hypersensitive reactions into lymphocytes. – naked “DNA” viral vaccines into the skin. – pathogens in the blood stream.
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– naked “DNA” viral vaccines into the skin.
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T-lymphocytes that bind to an antigen before co-stimulation takes place will cause – these lymphocytes to become tolerant to that antigen. – cause less tissue damage than when co-stimulation takes place first. – these lymphocytes to die. – cause plasma cells to produce autoantibodies.
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– these lymphocytes to become tolerant to that antigen.
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Without __________ there is no adaptive immune response. – T-lymphocytes – antibodies – plasma cells – B-lymphocytes
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– T-lymphocytes
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In the list below, which type of cell is involved in adaptive immunity? – Macrophages – B cells – Natural killer cells – Neutrophils
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– B cells
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Which of the following is not a sign of inflammation? – Swelling – Redness – Pain – Fever
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– Fever
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The first step in inflammation is: – phagocyte mobilization. – tissue injury. – vasodilation. – the release of pro-inflammatory signals.
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– tissue injury.
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Which of the following is not a property of interferons (IFNs)? – IFNs stimulate B cells to produce antibodies. – IFNs have antiviral activity. – IFNs activate macrophages. – IFNs have an anticancer role.
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– IFNs stimulate B cells to produce antibodies.
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Humoral immunity is provided by: – complement proteins. – T cells. – interferons. – antibodies.
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– antibodies.
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________ are substances that can trigger the adaptive defenses and provoke an immune response. – Haptens – Antibodies – Interleukins – Antigens
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– Antigens
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________ is the property of lymphocytes that prevents them from attacking the body’s own cells. – Immunological memory – Self-tolerance – Antigenicity – Immunocompetence
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– Self-tolerance
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Self-reactive B cells are eliminated in the: – bone marrow. – lymph nodes. – thymus. – spleen.
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– bone marrow.
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Which of the following is a characteristic of a secondary immune response? – A secondary immune response is slower than a primary immune response. – A secondary immune response is started by naïve lymphocytes, while a primary immune response is initiated by memory cells. – A secondary immune response lasts longer than a primary immune response. – A secondary immune response does produce as many antibodies compared to a primary immune response.
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– A secondary immune response lasts longer than a primary immune response.
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A vaccination works to establish: – natural passive immunity. – natural active immunity. – artificial passive immunity. – artificial active immunity.
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– artificial active immunity.
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Which is correctly matched? – B cells: suppress the immune response once the foreign antigen has been cleared from the body. – Helper T cells: recognize virus-infected cells – Cytotoxic T cells: activated by antigens bound to MHC I – Regulatory T cells: make antibodies
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– Cytotoxic T cells: activated by antigens bound to MHC I
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MHC II proteins are found on: – red blood cells. – cytotoxic T cells. – antigen-presenting cells. – helper T cells.
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– antigen-presenting cells.
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What is the second step of T cell activation? – Chemotaxis – Antigen binding – Anergy – Co-stimulation
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– Co-stimulation
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Which of the following is mismatched? – B cells: can be activated to produce antibodies – Helper T cells: directly target and kill cancer cells – Cytotoxic T cells: carry out cellular immune responses – Regulatory T cells: release inhibitory cytokines to dampen the immune response
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– Helper T cells: directly target and kill cancer cells
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A graft that is transplanted from one person to a genetically identical individual (i.e., to an identical twin) is an example of a(n) __________. – Allograft – Autograft – Isograft – Xenograft
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– Isograft

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