Chapter 2: The Chemical Basis of Life 2.3 Inorganic Chemistry

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inorganic chemistry
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generally substances that do not contain carbon such as water oxygen calcium phosphate and metal ions it also includes carbon monoxide carbon dioxide and bicarbonate
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organic chemistry
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study of carbon containing substances those that are biologically active are called biochemicals
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water
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formed when an atom of oxygen forms polar covalent bonds with two atoms of hydrogen which gives a partial positive charge from the hydrogen and a partial negative charge from the oxygen
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water accounts for how much in both female and male
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50% of weight of females and 60% of weight of males
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plasma
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is the liquid portion of blood and is 92% water
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cohesion
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attraction of water to another water molecule this occurs when surface tensions is exhibited when water bulges over the top of a full glass without spilling over
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adhesion
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surface tension that draws water a glass plate and holds a bead of water to he skin before it falls to the ground
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stabilizing body temperature occurs when
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water resists large temperature fluctuations since it can absorb large amounts of heat and remain a fairly stable temperature
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how is heat transferred
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blood which is mostly water can transfer heat from deep in the body to the surface
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protection occurs when
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water acts as a lubricant and cushion for organs lubrication reduces damage from friction and helps save organs from trauma
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what kind of chemical reactions occur
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water participate in synthesis reactions because they produce water and a hydrolysis reaction (decomposition reaction) requires water
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mixture
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substances that are physically not chemically combined
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suspension
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materials separate unless stirred example sand and water
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colloid
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dispersal of tiny particles through a medium example milk
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solution
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mixture of liquids solids or gases that are uniformly distributed and chemically combined
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solvent
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that which dissolves the solute
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solute
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that which dissolves in the solvent
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concentration
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measures of number of particles of solutes per volume of solution
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osmolality
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reflects the number of particles dissolved in one kilogram of water
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acid
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a proton donor or any substance that releases hydrogen ions
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base
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a proton acceptor or any substance that binds to or accepts hydrogen ions
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salt
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compound that consists of a cation other than a hydrogen ion and a anion other than a hydroxide ion
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buffer
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a solution of a conjugate acid and base pair where the acid and base components are similar concentrations
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what is a ph scale
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refers to the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution
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acidic
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greater concentration of hydrogen ions between zero and six in the ph scale
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basic
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greater concentration of hydroxide ions between eight and fourteen
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neutral
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equal hydrogen and hydroxide ions ph of seven
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what is the job of a buffer
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to regulate ph
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what are the four important biological buffers
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bicarbonate, phosphates, proteins and both respiratory and renal mechanisms
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oxygen
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required in the final step of the series of reactions that are used to extract energy from food
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carbon dioxide
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produced during the catabolism of organic compounds such as contributing to metabolic waste and it combines with water in plasma to produce hydrogen ions which affects the acid and base balance

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